West Sea Company

9. Scientific & Medical

Prices in U.S. Dollars are in GREEN

 



9.49  CIVIL WAR SURGEON’s KIT.  Authentic 3rd quarter of the 19th century American field surgeon’s kit containing all manner of state-for-the-art (for its time) surgical tools.  There are no less than 36 fearsome implements in this large set  including a leg amputation saw, finger amputation saw, skull saw, chain saw, Trepanning drill, 5 amputation knives, several picks and probes, 2 bone snips, and various other suturing needles and attachments.  Most of the implements are signed by the maker “TIEMANN & CO” and those with handles are made from vulcanized hard rubber following Goodyear’s 1855 patent.   The chain saw has ebony handles as does the large gouge, also signed “TIEMANN & CO.”  The entire set is housed in its original lovely brass-bound mahogany case with hinged lid, skeleton key lock, lift-out tray and removable panel in the lid.   The lid bears the oval makers label reading, “G. TIEMANN & CO. Manufacturers – of – Surgical Instruments 107 Park Row, N.Y.”  The inside of the case is lined in red felt with form-fitted impressions for each implement.  As such some implements are conspicuous in their absence.  The case measures 16 ½ inches long by 7 inches wide and is 4 inches thick.  The condition of this set is “well used,” no doubt in desperate battlefield conditions because there are blood stains and a number of the tools have minor to moderate corrosion from contact with blood.  The two snippers are the most obvious.  Nevertheless, this is a large, complex set from the pre-antiseptic era, which graphically recalls in human terms the phrase “bite the bullet!”  Price Request 

In the “Directory of American Military Goods Dealers & Makers 1785-1915,” Combined Edition, 1999 by Bruce Bazelon and William McGuinn, the entry reads:  “George Tiemann & Co., NYC.   Advertised as established in 1837.  Made surgical instruments in the Civil War period & listed from at least 1860-67.”


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9.64  CASED HYDROMETER.  Fine, second half of the 19th century hydrometer made by “Loftus, 521 Oxford Dt. London” as stamped into the maker’s label on the top of the case and again hand-engraved on the float.  This Sikes-type hydrometer, invented by its namesake John Sikes in 1824, was used in a variety of applications to test the specific gravity of a liquid.   Most frequently it was used to check the proof of spirits in distilling and to test the purity of water in steam boilers of the era.  This totally complete set features the gilded brass float marked with a graduated stem reading from “0” at the top to “10” at the bottom, divided in 2/10th % increments.  The stem is engraved “Sikes No. 9031” on one side and “LOFTUS London” on the other.  The full set of 9 interchangeable weights ranging from 10 to 90 % is present.  Each is engraved with the matching serial number “9031,” along with the maker’s initials “W.L.”  Because the specific gravity of a liquid is also dependant on temperature, a mercury thermometer with ivory scale is provided.  The scale ranges from 25 to 100 Fahrenheit marked in single degrees.  The top of the scale is signed “Loftus 521 Oxford St London.”  In use the float was loaded with the 90 and 10 weights (100).  When in pure water it would read 0 at the top of the stem, indicating 100% pure.  Salt water, being more dense would cause the float to rise, and alcohol being less dense, would cause it to sink.  The sum of the values of the weights required to bring the stem scale to equilibrium indicates the density of the liquid tested, higher or lower in percentage points, relative to pure water.  The hinged mahogany case is a thing of beauty with inlaid holly stringing on the lid and splined corners.  Two brass hooks assure a tight closure.  The inside of the lid is satin-lined and the instrument trays are dark purple felt.  The case is 8 inches long by 2 inches thick and 3 ¾ inches wide.  The float is 6 1/8th inches long and 1 3/8 inches in diameter at the widest.  Outstanding original condition in all respects.  The thermometer is accurate and the float registers 100 when immersed in pure water.  Remarkable for an instrument well over 130 years old!  429


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9.66 REFERENCE BOOK. Gerard L'E. Turner, "Collecting Microscopes," Christie's International Collectors Series, 1981, Mayflower Books, New York, 120 pages, hard cover with dust jacket and protective cover. Here is what is widely regarded as "THE" indispensable first reference for antiquarian microscope enthusiasts. Long out of print, this comprehensive reference is fully illustrated in color with chapters on optics, microscope construction and operation, the simple microscope, tripod and drum, the side pillar microscope, microscopes in Victorian England, 19th C. continental microscopes, the projection microscope, microscope accessories and practical hints for the collector. Also contained are appendices on museums and other collections, a price guide and bibliography. As new condition. 59


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9.62   CASED DEPTH METER.   Very finest quality ship’s hydrometer used to determine the specific gravity of water at the ship’s keel to compute its draught.   This precision instrument is made of nickeled brass and is signed “T.L. AINSLEY CARDIFF BARRY & NEWPORT’ on one side of the register and marked “TEMP 60” on the other.  The register is graduated from .00 to .25 in 25/100 increments.  It is housed in its rich original machine dove-tailed mahogany box with blue satin lining. A printed insert in the bottom reads “Board of Trade Hydrometer Tables” for indicating the “Draught in Feet for the rise in Density.”  The handsome solid mahogany box measures 9 ½ inches long by 2 3/8 inches wide and 2 1/8 inches high.  Nicely hinged, it is complete with it 2 functional brass hook closures.  The instrument itself measures 8 3/8 inches long and   inches in diameter on the float.  Beautiful original condition.   95 


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9.63   BUBBLE LEVEL.  Early 1900’s American pocket level used by surveyors and architects to lay out a level line of sight at a distance.  This precision instrument is all brass in its classic black crinkle finish and is marked “LIETZ 8040-00” on the top of the barrel. The eyepiece telescopes in and out to increase or decrease the observer’s field of view.  What appears in that field is a split circular image with the object on the right and a level line with bubble on the left.  In use, the object is seen to be in perfect level alignment with the observer’s eye when the bubble is centered on the line.  This is cleverly accomplished by means of a prism and small glass vial mounted on the top of the sighting tube.  Of special note is the fact this scientific instrument comes complete with its sturdy, sewn leather carrying case with snap cover and belt loop.  The case measures 6 ¼ inches long by 2 inches wide.  The instrument itself is 1 inch in diameter and telescopes from 5 ½ to 7 3/8 inches long.  Perfect original condition.  139

Adolph Lietz was born in Leubeck, Germany in 1860.  He immigrated to San Francisco in 1879.   He soon found employment in the scientific instrument trade working in the instrument shop of Carl Rahsskopff.   By 1882, the talented maker and entrepreneur, was able to open his own business.   His first business, "Lietz and Mauerhan" lasted  only a little over a year.   After Mauerhan departed, Lietz partnered with Conrad Weinmann, who had worked alongside Weule during their employ by Carl Rahsskopff in the early years.  The company,  known as "A. Lietz & Co.," produced surveying instruments and related scientific instruments.  The firm was incorporated in 1892 under the name "The A. Lietz Company."   In 1910 a complete line of drafting tools and engineering equipment was added.  But by 1947, after 65 years of production, the firm discontinued manufacturing.



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9.47  AMERICAN PRECISION BAROMETER / ALTIMETER.  Very highest quality surveyor’s portable barometer and altimeter.  This all brass precision devise has 2 silvered brass dials,   The stationary center dial is marked from 24 to 31 inches of mercury calibrated in 2/100th increments and marked “INCHES PRESSURE.”  It is additionally marked “Compensated For Temperature” at the top and is signed “Taylor Instrument Company, Rochester, N.Y. – U.S.A.  E.D. No. 4226.”  The outer dial rotates by means of the stem wind pocket watch feature at the top.   On the periphery it is calibrated in “METERS” from 0 to 1800 in 10’s of meters.  The inner scale is marked in “FEET” from -1000 to 6000 feet in 20 foot increments.  Interestingly then, this instrument was designed to also be used in the few places on earth below sea level and in mines!  The knurled outer rim of the barometer revolves to set a very fine needle pinpointing changes in the reading.  The dial is protected by a beveled glass crystal fitted into the knurled revolving bezel.  The body of the barometer is brass in a classic instrument black crackle finish.  The back is equipped with a set screw for adjusting the barometric reading, and the “winding stem” has a typical bow.  It comes complete with its sturdy hand-stitched leather carrying case with blue felt lining, belt loop attachment and loops for a carrying strap.  3 inches in diameter and 1 3/8 inches thick.  4 ¼ inches high inclusive of the bow.   Outstanding original condition showing good age but careful actual use and absolutely no abuse.  Extremely accurate!  In fact we have seen the needle register a change in altitude just by walking up a flight of stairs! 449 


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9.61  DRUM MICROSCOPE.   Cased 19th century field microscope complete in its original hardwood box with finger joint construction.  This all brass scientific instrument is of precision construction with the main tube sliding up and down in the body for focusing on the specimen mounted on the stage below.  Contained within the “drum” is a rotating substage mirror for illuminating the subject.  For further light amplification an articulated ball and socket magnifying glass is attached to the front of the body.  The instrument stands 6 inches tall and is housed in its form-fitted box with brass hinges and hook closures.  Included are the original brass tweezers and six early 1800’s prepared and identified glass slides.  Within the box is an old hand-written paper reading “DRUM TYPE MICROSCOPE originated about 1742 by Benj. Martin.  The pattern adopted + stabilized in 1816 by Fraser + improved later by Optician” with the original owner’s name and address.  Charmingly, on the reverse is a church pew application with the blank date of “_______192___”  Outstanding original condition in all respects  The brass surfaces retain their bright lacquered surfaces and the box is flawless.   A real bargain.   SOLD

According to Gerard L’E Turner in “Collecting Microscopes,” 1981, Christies International, Mayflower Books, New York, “The chief period of popularity for the ‘drum’ microscope in England was between 1820 and 1850, when it was sold by many provincial retailers.  It was still offered for sale by the firm of Negretti & Zambra in the 1870s.  Martin’s design was copied in France throughout the 19th century.”



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9.60  PRECISION BALANCING SCALES.  Extra high quality 19th century American scales used for weighing diamonds, pharmaceuticals and precious gems.   This handsome offering consists of a rich, solid mahogany cabinet glazed on all four sides with a counter-balanced front door which slides up and down effortlessly, remaining in any position.  This genuine scientific instrument was made by the well-known “Henry Troenmer Company of Philadelphia” as signed on the enclosed weight set in the drawer.  The all brass mechanism features a balance beam on an agate pivot pedestal with two cups also suspended on agate pivots.  The beam is engaged by a knurled knob on the front which raises it into the weighing position or lowers it to rest.  When in the weighing position, a very fine indicator needle passes over the blank ivory “reader plate” to show the measurement.   To provide an accurate reading the scale is equipped with a universal bubble level to ensure it is absolutely level.  The precise measuring pans are each stamped “P. SESANANTRA gr” with a number of proof marks.  In turn the drawer below is a complete weight box containing a full set of weights calibrated from 100 grams down to an amazing 2/10ths of a gram!  The combination provides for any weight in between to be accurately measured.  13 3/8 inches high by 15 ¾ inches wide and 7 ¾ inches deep.  Good original condition noting signs of wear and actual use as expected.   A very decorative curiosity for the office or studio.   549  Special PackagingBack to Top


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9.02  POCKET SUN DIAL.   Rare, incredibly old sun dial made entirely of ivory with pewter plates and brass fittings.  This amazing relic is of French originand represents what is known as a “Dieppe Magnetic Azimuth or Bloud-type dial.”  It is attributed to the early Parisian dial maker Jacques Senecal and datescirca 1660!  It is of the diptych type, meaning it has two leaves or tablets, hinged in the middle.  The outside top of the upper leaf is equipped with a pewter equinoctial dial for telling time by means of a pin gnomon.  The inner side is fitted with a lunar volvelle, allowing it to be used to determine the time at night when the moon was visible.  The main part of the dial occupies the lower leaf of the diptych.  A recessed bowl accommodates a delicate magnetic needle suspended on a pyramidal brass pivot.  Cleverly, this dial actually represents a form of mechanical computer.  The underside of the leaf holds a rotating disc engraved with the months and days of the year.  It is connected to the interior hour scale below the compass needle which acts as the gnomon.  Rotating the outer disc to the corresponding day moves the hour scale within setting it to the proper “altitude” for the time of year.  A typical horizontal dial with string gnomon is also provided, with the hours engraved in the ivory around the periphery of the compass rose.  In the bottom plate of the dial there is a finely-engraved paper card, the outer edge of which is marked in degrees by tens in four quadrants.  Within is an 8-pointed star with a fleur-de-lis at the North point.  The other star points are marked with the latitudes of important European cities such as “Paris, Venise, Rheims, Roma, Londre,” etc.  It is alsoequipped with a clever pivoting brass “stay” which holds the lid open, fitting neatly into a recessed slot when not in use. This lovely instrument is profusely engraved with decorative pinwheel elements on the periphery of each of its tablets, inside and out.   There are two very early pewter repairs in the lid to stabilize an age crack, and the very tip of one of the tiny brass hooks is off.  Otherwise this 350 year old instrument is in amazing condition for its age.  A museum piece! Price Request

 Literature:  Hester Higton, “Sundials, An Illustrated History,” 2001, Philip Wilson Publishers, Ltd., London.  Page 89 depicts a very similardial described as, “Dieppe magnetic azimuth dial by Jacques Senecal, c. 1660.  The inside of this dial has a lunar vovelle in the upper leaf and the main dialset into the lower one.  Collection of the National Maritime Museum, London.”

This sun dial represents the oldest antique we have ever offered in our 35 yearsin business.


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9.57  APOTHECARY CHEST.   Especially nice, especially early ship captain’s medicine chest.  This late 1700’s ship’s "chemist's box" is undoubtedly English, owing to the complexity of its design and precise construction.  It is made entirely of rich, flame grain mahogany painstakingly fitted together with amazingly small dove-tailed joints.  The folding top with ornate brass carrying handle hinges back on two brass stop hinges to reveal 15 compartments for stoppered bottles of which 14 are still present.  Evidencing their age, these hand-blown glass bottles have ground stoppers and pontils on the bottoms.  A few have chips in the rims, but none are cracked or broken.  Two have labels and two have contents.  The inside lid of the case is lined in its original velvet.  The chest is secured with two functional brass locks, one in each door, complete with functional skeleton key.  The diamond-shaped key escutcheons are inlaid with rare sea tortoise shell!   When unlocked the diptych front opens in the middle on double brass hinges to reveal 12 cathedral-like facades displaying the contents of their bottles.  Beneath these receptacles are 6 drawers, each with decoratively-turned ivory pulls.  Construction is absolutely of the highest order using impossibly tiny hand dove-tailed joints!  9 inches tall by 7 ¾ inches square.  When open the maximum width is 16 inches.  Considering its 200+ years, this apothecary chest is in excellent original condition.  Some cracks in the thinnest wood facings are noticeable.  But these have been stabilized and there is no structural damage.  All hinges and drawers function smoothly.  This is one of the nicest and most delicate examples we have ever seen!   2149 Special PackagingBack to Top

The vast majority of merchant ships from the mid-19th century and earlier did not carry a doctor.  That responsibility fell to the ship’s Captain who doubled as the ship’s doctor.  With little if any training, it is remarkable that a Captain could more often than not effectively treat his crew’s ailments with such a chest on voyages lasting up to several years!


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9.59    POCKET SURVEYING INSTRUMENT.   Remarkably pristine 2nd half of the 1800’s American surveying compass of diminutive size.  This handsome precision instrument is made entirely of brass with a silvered compass card indicating the cardinal points of the compass.  The card is encompassed by a reflector ring engraved in single degrees 0 - 360 marked in 10’s beginning at “N.”  It is swept by a fine compass needle balanced on a brass cap with agate pivot.  The blackened end of the needle points to magnetic North.  A caging device is provided to lock the needle in place when not in use.  To take a bearing, two folding sight vanes are provided at North and South respectively.  Its original old wavy glass crystal protects the mechanism.  The instrument fits neatly into its formed wooden case with folding lid, velvet-lined interior and textured Moroccan leather covering.  Two folding eye hooks provide positive closure   The case measures 4 ¼ inches in diameter and 1 ¼ inches thick when closed.   The compass body itself measures 3 ½ inches and the compass is 3 inches in diameter.  The condition of the entire presentation is superb.  The bright lacquered finish on the body of the compass does not belie its 150 years.  339


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9.58  EARLY ENGLISH THERMOMETER.  Genuine mid-19th century gentleman’s traveling pocket thermometer with ivory scale signed by the maker “CARTER, EXETER” at the top.  This antique mercury bulb thermometer is marked in single degrees Fahrenheit from 0 to 110 with the classic notations, “FREEZING, TEMPERATE, SUM,’R HEAT and BLOOD HEAT.”  It is housed in its original wooden case, lined in silk and covered in Moroccan leather.  The hinged case closes on a positive button latch and is equipped with a pivoting brass eyelet at the top for hanging.  The ivory scale also has a silk ribbon rove through the top for hanging independent of the case.  6 ¼ inches long, 1 ¼ inches wide and ½ inch thick.  Untouched original condition showing expected wear from careful use.  Functional and accurate.  249



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9.73

9.73 EARLY SURGICAL TOOL.  Very rare early 19th century surgeon's tool used for the removal of a patient's tonsils. This "Tonsil Guillotine" as it was known, consists of a fearsome sharp probe and two stationary steel orifices connected to a brass shaft terminating in a cross hatched ivory handle. Pulling the handle engages a sliding blade, the guillotine, which in theory would have sliced off the hapless patient's tonsil once engaged by the probe and held by the orifices! Clever in its construction, this no less gruesome device bears decorative elements in its construction reminiscent of instruments from the Queen Ann period. It measures 10 inches long and is in excellent original functioning condition. Both the steel and brass components bear deep patination with surface oxidation, but no rust or corrosion. The ivory handle is sound with only minor staining (blood?). A very rare early surgical tool of museum quality. 795


Elizabeth Bennion in "Antique Medical Instruments," 1979, Sotheby Parke Bernet, London, pictures and describes a similar device with finger pieces on page 108. The photograph is captioned, "Tonsil guillotine, c. 1860, Museum of Historical Medicine, Copenhagen." The text, in part, reads, "Guillotines and forceps were listed in the catalogues from the early nineteenth century and were in two sizes, for adults and children. Tonsil-guillotines are easily recognisable by means of the two parallel sliding rings, one with cutting edge... Unlike many other instruments, the earlier examples tend to be lighter while those of a later date become complicated and cumbersome with elaborate finger pieces. Cased sets with various spare attachments were made c. 1860, but simple steel and brass guillotines have survived from at least ten years earlier." It is our belief that the example here is much earlier than 1850 and thus may in fact represent a prototype!


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9.27

 

9.27  TREPINING DRILL.  Early, famous maker signed doctor’s skull drill as used by surgeons in the 18th and early 19th century.  This especially nice example has a solid ivory hand with decoratively turned ends and cross hatching on the grip.  It is impressed on the sturdy brass shank, “ARNOLD & SONS LONDON.”  It features a fearsomely sharp circular steel blade with serrated edge 7/8ths inches in diameter.  At its center is a sharp pivot which is made adjustable in its penetration of the skull by a sliding component on the shank fixed into place by a small thumbscrew.   The ivory handle measures 3 1/2 inches wide and the overall height of the instrument is 4 ½ inches.  Fine condition showing good age but no abuse.  A rare form medical instrument. 595

James Arnold & Sons was listed in the London directories as having begun work at 32 West Smithfield in 1819 with alternative addresses at Giltspur Street.  (Gloria Clifton, “Directory of British Scientific Instrument Makers 1550-1851,” 1995, National Maritime Museum, London).

These days one can scarcely imagine surgery to the head being done using a manual drill in septic conditions without anesthesia.  At the time, about the best  available was a stiff shot of whisky and a lead bullet!


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9.06

 

9.06 THEOBALD’s PROBES. Unusual set of 19th century American eye doctor’s instruments. This complete set of 8 probes was precisely manufactured of nickel-plated brass. Atop each probe is attached a small double leaf-shaped plaque stamped with two numbers. The numbers indicate the diameter of the probe on each end, ranging in size from the smallest, “1” through the largest, “16.” The set is housed in it original leather-covered hinged wooden case with blue satin lining. A small sliding lock is provided on the front for positive closure. The top of the case is embossed in gold “Set of Theobald’s Probes. The case measures 6 inches long by 3 3/8 inches wide and is 1 inch thick. The exterior leather evidences wear and some minor losses. The interior and contents are perfect. A rare, complete set of early doctor’s tools. 149

In a publication dated 1888, “New Eye Instruments,” J.O. Tansley discusses lachrymal canal or “tear duct” practice at the time, stating that it was “To dilate the canal as much as possible without traumatism.”

Samuel Theobald was born in 1846. He began his Baltimore, Maryland medical practice in 1871. Before his appointment at Johns Hopkins, Dr. Theobald was one of the founders of the Baltimore Eye, Ear and Throat Charity Hospital in 1882. In 1889 he founded the Opthamology Department at John’s Hopkins Hospital. In addition to teaching at the medical school and working in the dispensary, he was known for the development of “Theobald lachrymal probes,” the introduction of boric acid as an effective eye wash, and his book, Prevalent Diseases of the Eye. He was a member of the American Ophthalmological Society for 50 years and served as its 14th President.


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9.46   CIVIL WAR SURGEON’s KIT.  Genuine American Civil War era field surgeon’s amputation kit made by “Tiemann, New York” with matching signatures.  This fearsome yet effective  state-of-the-art “health care” device for its time features 8 implements contained within a fitted mahogany case with red velvet interior.  Each of the items is signed, save for the unique sliding forceps (hemostat) which fills its compartment perfectly and is obviously part of the set.   They consist of 4 amputation knives, a probe, the forceps mentioned and 2 bone saws, the larger of which bears the full signature “Tiemann & Co N-York.”  Each of the implements, save for the forceps, have solid ebony handles with fine cross hatching.  What is missing is the tourniquet, a pair of bone snips, and suturing needles.  (One old example is present).  Each piece is original to the set and fits perfectly into its allotted slot.  The quality solid mahogany case with splined joints has 3 brass hinges, inlaid escutcheon in the lid and the original lock and skeleton key.  There is a professional restoration around the striker plate.  The red lining of this case is telling, given the horrific circumstances under which it was used.  Overall condition of this set is excellent, noting spotting to some of the steel parts which have been subsequently cleaned and polished.  All of the wooden handles are in beautiful original condition.  The box measures 16 inches long by 4 ¼ inches wide and 3 ¼ inches deep.  A genuine Civil War relic of the most poignant kind!  1795

According to Bruce Bazelon and William McGuinn, authors of “A Directory of American Military Good Dealers & Makers 1785-1915,” 1999, REF Publishing, Manassas, Virginia, George Tiemann & Co. were established in 1837. They were makers of surgical instruments in the Civil War period & listed from at least 1860-1867 as surgical instruments at 65 Chatham & 44 Eldridge, NYC.


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9.54  TOOTH KEY.   Genuine 19th century dentist’s extraction tool.  This fearsome relic of antiquated medicine consists of a hand-forged iron shaft riveted into a lovely turned ivory handle.  The pivoting “key” at the bottom of the instrument allowed  the doctor (or more likely the barber) to firmly grasp the ailing tooth,  then twist it out with a quick rotation of the handle!  Painful but practical, this was the state-of-the art in the mid 1800’s.  5 ¾ inches long and 3 ½ inches wide on the handle.  Excellent original condition showing good age and use but no abuse.  A  medical rarity!  495


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9. 52  POCKET COMPASS.  Very nice turn-of-the-last-century gentleman’s traveling compass of French manufacture.  This precision instrument is all brass with a beveled brass crystal covering the silvered brass compass card within.  The compass rose is marked with the cardinal and intercardinal points of the compass and is divided in degrees around the periphery in 2 degree increments.  There is also an engraved arrow pointing NNW (340 degrees and a “positive declination”) indicating true north vs. magnetic north at the time the compass was made for use in North America.  The fine steel compass needle with agate pivot is blued on the southern point and silver on the north.   It overlies a large black rotating arrow which is set by turning the bottom of the knurled case.  This can be used to mark a bearing or set a course.  A second complication is in the form of the caging device which locks the compass needle into place when not it use.  It is operated by a small knot at the 9 o’clock position.  This hand compass is pocket watch size and as such has a bow and loop at the “S” position just like a pocket watch.  Slightly under 2 inches in diameter and 2 ½ inches tall overall.  Perfect original condition showing good age and careful use.  The compass is lively and accurate.  129


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9.53 AMERICAN THEODOLITE.   Early 1900’s surveyor’s theodolite by the most respected American scientific manufacturers, Keuffel & Esser Co. New York, 28908” as engraved on the silvered brass dial.  This complex precision instrument is all brass in its original black oxidized finish.  It consists of the central magnetic compass with fine steel needle and agate pivot on a silvered brass compass card showing the cardinal points of the compass divided into 90 degree quadrants marked in single degrees.  The card is encompassed by a second covered scale in a horizontal plane reading from 0-360 clockwise in single degrees and 0-360 counterclockwise by 10’s.  It is overlaid by a vernier which allows a reading down to a single arc minute.  It is operated by a knurled thumbscrew stop with a second tangent fine adjust knob.  In the vertical plane (altitude) a third circle, calibrated in single degrees in 4 quadrants, is attached to the telescope.  A second vernier on the support strut provides that reading to an accuracy of 10 arc minutes.  The rack and pinion focusing telescope with perfect optics is also mounted with two thumbscrews for coarse and fine adjustment of the reading.  The plane of the compass is provided with two functional bubble levels.  Plus the telescope has a third, long level.  To these ends the entire apparatus is mounted on a heavy brass base with 4 knurled leveling screws.  The base is threaded to fit atop a tripod for use in the field, but also comes with its threaded aluminum platform for use on a plane table.  This instrument is complete with its original machine-dovetailed mahogany case.  The instrument stands 10 inches tall and the telescope is 8 inches long fully closed.  The aluminum base measures exactly 6 by 9 inches.  The box is 12 inches tall by 10 inches wide and 7 inches deep.  Condition of the instrument is excellent.  Fully functional and accurate in all respects.  The box is sound but shows wear.  A handsome early American instrument over 100 years old.  595 Special Packaging

The famous scientific instrument-making firm of Keuffel & Esser, respectfully known as “K & E,” was founded in July 1867 by Wilhelm J.D. Keuffel and Herman Esser, both German émigrés.  They began manufacturing surveying instruments in 1885 and incorporated their company in 1889. 
“A Keuffel & Esser Co., New York Railroad transit, serial number 29034, is in the Gurley Museum, manufactured about 1914.”  (Charles E. Smart, “The Makers of Surveying Instruments In America Since 1700,” 1962, Regal Art Press, Troy, New York).  A very similar instrument, captioned “1915 Model Gurley Theodolite,” is pictured on page (ix).



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9.48  EARLY PLANETARIUM.   Important, genuine 18th century solar system model of French manufacture.   This very rare second half of the 1700’s Copernican view of a sun-centered solar system is defined by a brass ball in the middle representing the sun.  It rests atop a brass rod which supports 8 brass arms mounting revolving planets and a brass gearwork device which rotates the earth and its orbiting moon.  Reading outward from the center of the solar system are the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth with its moon, Mars, Ceres, Pallas, Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus.   Each is represented with its lithographed identity done on a paper Maché disc.  The earth is constructed in the traditional manner with a solid wood core overlaid by stenciled gores.  The moon is depicted in ivory.  The heavy brass equatorial ring is engraved with 3 scales.  The outer scale shows the months of the year divided by 5 day increments.  The middle scale indicates the signs of the Zodiac, and the inner scale is calibrated in single degrees by 30 degree arc sectors.  The Meridian ring, intersecting the Equatorial ring at the summer and winter solstices, is marked “0” at the Zenith down to 23 degrees where it is marked “SOLSTICE.”  Intersecting the Solstice ring at 23 degrees is the elliptic which is marked “EQUINOXES” on both sides of the Meridian  The entire presentation is mounted on a cast iron hemispherical frame which supports the equatorial and elliptical rings.  It is mounted to a substantial brass cap atop a turned, ebonized wooden base.  19 inches tall by 12 ¼ inches in diameter.  The wooden pedestal measures 6 ½ inches in diameter at the base.  Truly amazing, beautiful condition.  Museum quality! SOLD Back to Top

Ceres and Pallas were originally considered planets.  But after 1845 and the discovery of asteroid belt, they were reclassified as asteroids.  Uranus was discovered in 1781 but was not officially recognized as planet until 1873.


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9.03  ARMILLARY SPHERE.  Rare early 19th century model of the solar system made by the famous French globe maker Delamarche as printed on the terrestrial globe in the center.  This planetary model is based on the Ptolemaic system devised by early Greek astronomer Claudius Ptolemaeus (A.D. 90 – 128) in which he envisioned the solar system as a set of nested spheres.  Ptolemy’s model depicted the Earth at the center of the solar system, whereas the later (and correct) Copernican system was sun-centered.  This exceptional example features a pewter equatorial ring engraved in single degrees, 0 – 360.  It is supported on a cast iron strut which also houses the brass Meridian ring divided into quadrants of 90 degrees each.  As mounted, the Meridian ring is free to revolve and thus indicates the sun’s declination at any time of the year.  The broad diagonal paper ring is beautifully engraved with the signs of the Zodiac.  The remaining horizontal rings indicate the north and south tropics and the equator.  This especially fine model is in a marvelous state of  preservation, considering the fact that it is over 200 years old!  Museum Quality.   

 The first maker to produce globes in France for use by the general public was Charles-Francois Delamarche (1740-1817).  Delamarche’s workshop was on Rue du Foin, St. Jacques au College Me. Gervais’, Quartier Latin.  Subsequently his addresses were Rue du Jardinet, then  No. 7 Rue du Battour, all Paris.  Likely this sphere is the work of his son and successor, Felix.

The term Armillary sphere comes from the Latin armilla meaning hoop or bracelet.   The earth is shown as a small globe in the center of the sphere which is formed by 2 rings at right angles.  The tropics of Cancer and Capricorn (representing the sun’s maximum North and South declinations from the Equator) and the Arctic and Antarctic circles are represented by narrower rings.  A broad ring crossing the tropic rings represents the ecliptic or path of the sun.  The sphere is mounted within a Meridain ring set into the Equatorial ring.  Practical use of the Armillary sphere as a solar system teaching aid was superseded by the Orrery in the early 18th century.  (A. Major, Maritime Antiques, 1981, Tantivy Press, London).

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