West Sea Company

9. Scientific & Medical

Prices in U.S. Dollars are in GREEN

 



9.53 AMERICAN THEODOLITE.   Early 1900’s surveyor’s theodolite by the most respected American scientific manufacturers, Keuffel & Esser Co. New York, 28908” as engraved on the silvered brass dial.  This complex precision instrument is all brass in its original black oxidized finish.  It consists of the central magnetic compass with fine steel needle and agate pivot on a silvered brass compass card showing the cardinal points of the compass divided into 90 degree quadrants marked in single degrees.  The card is encompassed by a second covered scale in a horizontal plane reading from 0-360 clockwise in single degrees and 0-360 counterclockwise by 10’s.  It is overlaid by a vernier which allows a reading down to a single arc minute.  It is operated by a knurled thumbscrew stop with a second tangent fine adjust knob.  In the vertical plane (altitude) a third circle, calibrated in single degrees in 4 quadrants, is attached to the telescope.  A second vernier on the support strut provides that reading to an accuracy of 10 arc minutes.  The rack and pinion focusing telescope with perfect optics is also mounted with two thumbscrews for coarse and fine adjustment of the reading.  The plane of the compass is provided with two functional bubble levels.  Plus the telescope has a third, long level.  To these ends the entire apparatus is mounted on a heavy brass base with 4 knurled leveling screws.  The base is threaded to fit atop a tripod for use in the field, but also comes with its threaded aluminum platform for use on a plane table.  This instrument is complete with its original machine-dovetailed mahogany case.  The instrument stands 10 inches tall and the telescope is 8 inches long fully closed.  The aluminum base measures exactly 6 by 9 inches.  The box is 12 inches tall by 10 inches wide and 7 inches deep.  Condition of the instrument is excellent.  Fully functional and accurate in all respects.  The box is sound but shows wear.  A handsome early American instrument over 100 years old.  595 Special Packaging

The famous scientific instrument-making firm of Keuffel & Esser, respectfully known as “K & E,” was founded in July 1867 by Wilhelm J.D. Keuffel and Herman Esser, both German émigrés.  They began manufacturing surveying instruments in 1885 and incorporated their company in 1889.  
“A Keuffel & Esser Co., New York Railroad transit, serial number 29034, is in the Gurley Museum, manufactured about 1914.”  (Charles E. Smart, “The Makers of Surveying Instruments In America Since 1700,” 1962, Regal Art Press, Troy, New York).  A very similar instrument, captioned “1915 Model Gurley Theodolite,” is pictured on page (ix).



BOX
OPEN
IN BOX

TELESCOPE
BUBBLE
COMPASS

COMPASS VERNIER
PEDESTAL

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9.82  WORLD WAR I MARCHING COMPASS.  Very high quality French marching compass made for the “U.S. Engineer Corps” as engraved on the rim.  This all brass compass has a floating metal card with an agate pivot.  North is marked by a prominent arrow.  There are two scales.  The inner scale for direct reading is sub-divided into 5 degree increments, marked by 20’s.  The outer scale is precisely divided into single degrees marked by 10’s.  The numbers are upside down.  When the prismatic sight is used, this allows the observer to view a remarkable upright mirror image superimposed on the object sighted!  The sighting is even more refined by the sight hair (real hair!) in the glazed outer cover.  The prism pivots into place over the compass or can be folded back out of the way, protected by a tab on the cover.   The bezel of the compass cover is knurled and rotates with a fine line to lay out a course.   On the outer periphery of the compass body are engraved compass degrees in 5 degree increments as well as the cardinal and intercardinal points of the compass.  A manual caging device locks the compass card when not in use, and an automatic caging device also locks the card when the cover is closed.   The top of the compass is equipped with a heavy brass pivoting suspension loop.  The back of the compass body appears to be covered in hard rubber (some missing) and bears the date and signature of the maker “CE 1918.”   Remarkably the compass comes in its original stitched thick leather belt case with brass closure stamped “MODELE DEPOSE.”   The compass is 2 ¼ inches in diameter and the leather case measures 2 ¾ by 3 ½ inches.  Beautiful original condition showing good age but careful use.  Totally functional.  295


case
with case
compass card

closed
view

engineer corps
maker date

 

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9.76   18th CENTURY ORRERY by FAMOUS MAKERS.  Important, exceptionally rare late 1700’s mechanical model of the solar system made by the famous English scientific instrument makers W. & S. Jones, London as signed in two blocks near the center, “Designed for the NEW PORTABLE ORRIERIES by W. JONES” -- and “Made and fold (sic) by W. & S. JONES 30 Holborn, LONDON,” with each block held by winged angels.  This working apparatus consists of a wooden turntable supported on tripodal feet overlaid with a comprehensive lithographed view of the cosmos from an 18th century perspective.  The central title reads “A TABLE of the principal AFFECTIONS  of the PLANETS Jany 1st 1794 Published as the Act directs by W. & S. Jones.”  Above it is the legend reading “ANNO 1794” listing the planets “MERCURY, VENUS, EARTH MARS, JUPITER, and SATURN” with a table indicating “Mean Distance, Period of revolutions, Diurnal rotations, Diameters and Greatest elongation of planets” for each.  To the left is a table listing SATURN’S Satellites” as held by a scholar sitting next to a globe.  On the right is a table listing “JUPITER’S Satellites” as held by a robed scholar pointing to the table.  Below is a large hemispherical chart depicting the relative positions of the planets from the year 1796 through 1810 entitled “THE SOLAR SYSTEM.”  Encircling these central vignettes (moving outward) are the individual degrees of the compass, followed by 2 bands of sectors, each containing 90 degree quadrants marked by 5’s and running from 0 to 90, then 90 to 0.  Extending outward from them are the cardinal, intercardinal and sub-intercardinal points of the compass.  Next are the 12 signs of the Zodiac with their respective characters charmingly depicted.  Outward from these is an interpolative degree scale divided down to ½ degree in units of 30 degrees each.  Finally the outer periphery is divided into the identified 12 months of the year.  If all of this weren’t amazing enough, the equally fascinating aspect of this mechanism is its geared clockwork depicting the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its moon.  Through the complex gearing system, operated by an ivory-handled brass crank on the rim, each planet is shown to revolve about the sun.  In addition the earth turns on its axis as the moon revolves around it.  There are 2 engraved brass rings below the earth.  The bottom ring shows the phases of the moon, while the upper ring is divided into 15 degree sectors marked with the traditional signs of the Zodiac.  Charmingly, the Earth is made using traditional chromolithographed paper gores.  The makers’ name “JONES LONDON” appears in the Pacific Ocean.  Simulating day and night, a crescent shaped brass light curtain encircles the Earth while the ivory moon revolves on a tilted plane in keeping with the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.  The entire apparatus is in an amazing state of original preservation with obvious signs of age, careful use and minor restoration.  12 5/8 inches in diameter.  Completely functional.  Museum quality of the first order.  Price Request Special PackagingBack to Top

William Jones II was born in 1762 and began his work as a philosophical, mathematical and scientific instrument maker on Holborn Street, London in 1787.  In 1792 he joined with his brother Samuel in a partnership to form the firm of W. & S. Jones.  That well known, highly respected and very prominent instrument making firm flourished until 1832 at 30 Holborn, London.  They were known to have manufactured and sold planetariums and sun dials among other instruments.  (Gloria Clifton, “Dictionary of British Scientific Instrument Makers 1550-1851,” page 153.)
An identical, later Orrerey is pictured on page 47 of Harriet Wynter and Anthony Turner’s landmark reference book “Scientific Instruments,” Fig. 50, described as “English orrery, signed ‘Designed for the New PORTABLE ORRIRIES by W. Jones and made and sold by W. & S. JONES 30 Holborn, LONDON’,  c. 1810-20, diameter approx 315 mm (12 ½ in).”   The caption reads (verbatim), “Circular base covered with a paper printed round the edge with a zodiac calendar.  Contained within this is the upper half of the circle is ‘A Table of the principal AFFECTIONS of the PLANETS published by W. & S. Jones in 1794,’ showing the distances, periods, sizes, etc. of the planets out to Saturn.  In the lower half of the circle is a pictorial representation of the solar system.  A brass sphere representing the sun is mounted on the central shaft around which revolve the inferior planets represented by ivory spheres, and the earth and moon.  The moon is mounted on a silvered zodiac scale with a silvered dial carrying a lunar phase diagram below.  The whole machine is operated by a turning a cranked handled which may be attached to an arbor below the base-board, meshing by an endless screw to a wheel attached to the central shaft of the movement which is carried through the base.”



top
planets

earth - moon
jupiter

underside
makers

CoMp
 

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9.77  19TH CENTURY LAING’S PLANETARIUM.   Beautifully-preserved late 19th century American planetary model depicting the Sun, Earth, moon and Venus.  This classic solar system model shows the sun-centered wooden orb perched atop a decoratively-turned wooden column.  Extending below is a wooden arm supporting the Earth and its moon at the tip.  Attached to the arm is the silvered brass maker’s plaque reading “LAING’S PLANETARIUM, PATENTED, LAING’S PLANETARIUM CO. DETROIT, MICH, U.S.A.”  The central orb, the sun, consists of a gilded wooden sphere measuring 4 ½ inches in diameter.  Below it, supported on a metal arm is the articulated representation of the planet Venus.  At the end of the wooden arm are the Earth and its circling moon.  The detailed depiction of the earth, constructed in the classic manner using chromolithographed gores, is signed “Laing’s Planetariums Co. Detroit, Mich.” in a shield cartouche in the north Pacific.  On the decoratively turned hardwood central base are inscribed the months of the year, the seasons and the individual signs of the Zodiac.  12 ½ inches high by 20 inches wide at the widest.  The base is 7 1/8 inches in diameter and the arm is 14 ½ inches long.  This antique offering over 110 years old is in an absolutely incredible state of original preservation, very close to being perfect at the time it was made!  What is very important is that ALL of the planetary functions are operable.  The best we have ever seen in the 30+ years we have monitored auctions and private sellers.   This is an American museum piece of the first order.   Price Request Special PackagingBack to Top

The short-lived Laing Planetarium Company developed this planetarium model in the late 19th century.  Known as a "tellurian," its inventor, Alexander Laing, received a U.S. patent  in 1895.   A decade later he sold his planetarium interests in 1905 to the Trippensee Planetarium Company of Detroit, Michigan.  Thereafter, Trippensee modified the device using their patented chain-driven model which purportedly improved upon Laing's original string-driven model.   Rand McNally produced a 3-inch terrestrial globe, copyrighted in 1891, which was incorporated in both versions.  Clearly, this example is from the late 1800’s.

Christie’s New York auction house sold a similar planetarium, lot 67, Sale 2129, in January 2009 for $6000.  Although catalogued as being later than this example, the description read, “A. LAING, Detroit , Michigan; circa 1910  (which obviously it could not be) with manufacturer’s plaque for LAING’S PLANETARIUM-Patented-/ Laing Planetarium Co./Detroit, Mich, U.S.A., the 3-inch diameter terrestrial globe made up of twelve chromolithographed paper gores, with a cartouche for Laing Planetarium Co., the equatorial and anti-meridian graduated in degrees, the ecliptic graduated in days, the countries shaded in various colors, mounted on a complex pulley system with a white and black painted wooden moonball, connected via the  planetarium are to the 4-inch diameter gilt-painted wooden sunball, with black painted wooden ball for Venus, the whole operating via nine pairs of wooden pulleys and three pairs of rollers used to incline the axes of the moon and Venus.”



detail
mechanism

earth and moon
earth

base
maker

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9.78   RARE ENGLISH ORRERY.   Mid-1800’s mechanical planetary model depicting the earth and its moon revolving around the sun.  This beautifully-constructed mechanism features a heavy cast brass bedplate mounted atop a graceful cast iron base.  Affixed to the base is the embossed oval brass maker’s label reading, “George Philip & Son Geographical & Educational Publishers LONDON 32 Fleet Street.”  The brass bedplate is cast in high relief with a compass rose in the center encircled by the inscription, “PARKES & HADLEY’S PATENT ORREREY.”  Surrounding it are concentric rings indicating the seasons then the months of the year.  Stamped on the periphery is a pretzel-shaped logo pierced by an arrow reading “SALTER,” the casting foundry.  The perimeter of the plate exhibits very finely-cut gear teeth.  These mesh with a series of gears at the end of a rotating arm which support and give motion to the sun and its moon.  The mechanism is so-designed that the earth revolves 30 times as it passes each month on the bedplate while the moon completes a full orbit around the earth!  The earth is constructed in the traditional was with paper gores covering a plaster core.  The moon is paint wood.  The top center of the device has brass candle holder to mimic the sun.  Behind is a silvered parabolic reflector.  This fascinating device stands 9 ¾ inches high by 13 ¾ inches wide at the widest.  The bedplate is 10 inches in diameter.   This Orrerey is in excellent original condition and operates properly and smoothly.    Price Request Special PackagingBack to Top


perspective
earth and moon

signature
second signature

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9.81  EARLY CELESTIAL GLOBE.  Very important 18th century celestial globe made by the French master Jean Fortin (1750-1831), as signed on the International Dateline (180th meridian) “POSITION des Etoiles Fixes F. Année 1780 Par le Sr Fortin Ingen Geogr. Paris.”  Above it,  in the Northern hemisphere, just to the right is a cartouche reading “Grandr des Etoiles” the key to the magnitude of the stars depicted,  running from “Premiere, Deaucime, Troisieme, Quatrieme and Cinqemiene and Sireme” and ending in “Nebuleu.”  The constellations and stars so designated are done in a most precise and scientific way, with the bodies of the constellations depicted in dark brown against the lighter tan background of the globe.  Literally hundreds, approaching thousands, of stars are depicted as are the equator, Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.  There are several other features, too numerous to relate in this description.  The supporting Meridian ring is marked in single degree noting “Degres of Elevation due Pole” and also “Nonbre de Climats.”  It is boldly marked “MERIDIEN.”  The equally impressive stand has an equatorial ring, the inner circle of which is marked in single degrees.  Next is the depiction of the signs of the Zodiac with the likenesses of the representative characters.  Extending outward, the next is another alternating degree scale.  Further are the divisions of months.  Finally, on the outer rim are the European markings for the intercardinal markings of the compass.   This globe was constructed in the traditional way using a plaster of Paris core overlaid by chromolithographed paper gores.  The wooden stand, meridian and equatorial rings are constructed of wood, again overlaid with chromolithographed paper.  The turned stand and base are ebonized hardwood.  The hand-written inscription “globe celest” is written in chalk on the bottom.   The globe itself measures 8 ½ inches in diameter.  It is 13 inches wide and 20 inches tall overall.  Aside from a few areas darkened with age, the entire presentation is in an absolutely remarkable state of original preservation after nearly 240 years.  Museum quality of the finest order!  Price Request Special PackagingBack to Top


detail
perspective

pole
equatorial ring

magnitudes
signature

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9.75  MINIATURE POCKET COMPASS.  Very early 1800’s cased pocket compass of English manufacture.  This tiny functional instrument has a paper card measuring a mere 1 inch in diameter.  Yet its rose bears the cardinal, intercardinal and sub-intercardinal points of the compass with north marked by a traditional fleur-de-lis, and the periphery of the card is divided in degrees by 2’s and marked in 10’s.  The lively compass needle has a brass pivot with an agate cap.  It is contained under glass in its hinged wooden case with Moroccan leather and purple velvet liner.  The housing is secured shut by the tiniest hook and eye closure we have ever seen!  The entire presentation measures only 1 ½ inches in diameter and 5/8 inches think.  An amazing, working scientific instrument of the smallest kind.  199


compass
case

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9.99   18th CENTURY COMPASS.   Particularly fine early to mid-18th century traveler’s compass, unmarked, but certainly of English manufacture.  This genuine old relic has a beautifully engraved paper card mounted within its all brass case.  The cardinal, inter-cardinal and sub-cardinal points of the compass are all identified, with North bearing a classic fleur-de-lis.  The periphery of the card is also calibrated in single degrees, marked by 10’s of degrees in each quadrant.  Of special note is the elaborately decorated card, embellished with floral and “wheat head” designs, very indicative of such instruments produced in the early 1700’s.  The blued, soft iron compass needle also exhibits its great age with a classic “winged” pyramidal brass cap and finely shaped tips.  The compass is protected by its original old wavy glass and has a recess in the rim at the North point for sighting on a corresponding notch in the opposite rim at South.  With that, this superb early compass even retains its original screw-on brass cover!  3 3/8th inches in diameter and 1 inch thick.  Absolutely remarkable condition for an instrument of this type, well over 250 years old!  895



CASE
COMPASS

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9.02  POCKET SUN DIAL.   Rare, incredibly old sun dial made entirely of ivory with pewter plates and brass fittings.  This amazing relic is of French originand represents what is known as a “Dieppe Magnetic Azimuth or Bloud-type dial.”  It is attributed to the early Parisian dial maker Jacques Senecal and datescirca 1660!  It is of the diptych type, meaning it has two leaves or tablets, hinged in the middle.  The outside top of the upper leaf is equipped with a pewter equinoctial dial for telling time by means of a pin gnomon.  The inner side is fitted with a lunar volvelle, allowing it to be used to determine the time at night when the moon was visible.  The main part of the dial occupies the lower leaf of the diptych.  A recessed bowl accommodates a delicate magnetic needle suspended on a pyramidal brass pivot.  Cleverly, this dial actually represents a form of mechanical computer.  The underside of the leaf holds a rotating disc engraved with the months and days of the year.  It is connected to the interior hour scale below the compass needle which acts as the gnomon.  Rotating the outer disc to the corresponding day moves the hour scale within setting it to the proper “altitude” for the time of year.  A typical horizontal dial with string gnomon is also provided, with the hours engraved in the ivory around the periphery of the compass rose.  In the bottom plate of the dial there is a finely-engraved paper card, the outer edge of which is marked in degrees by tens in four quadrants.  Within is an 8-pointed star with a fleur-de-lis at the North point.  The other star points are marked with the latitudes of important European cities such as “Paris, Venise, Rheims, Roma, Londre,” etc.  It is alsoequipped with a clever pivoting brass “stay” which holds the lid open, fitting neatly into a recessed slot when not in use. This lovely instrument is profusely engraved with decorative pinwheel elements on the periphery of each of its tablets, inside and out.   There are two very early pewter repairs in the lid to stabilize an age crack, and the very tip of one of the tiny brass hooks is off.  Otherwise this 350 year old instrument is in amazing condition for its age.  A museum piece! Price Request

 Literature:  Hester Higton, “Sundials, An Illustrated History,” 2001, Philip Wilson Publishers, Ltd., London.  Page 89 depicts a very similardial described as, “Dieppe magnetic azimuth dial by Jacques Senecal, c. 1660.  The inside of this dial has a lunar vovelle in the upper leaf and the main dialset into the lower one.  Collection of the National Maritime Museum, London.”

This sun dial represents the oldest antique we have ever offered in our 35 yearsin business.


CALENDAR
COMPASS

LUNAR VOLVELLE

OUTER DIAL



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9.59    POCKET SURVEYING INSTRUMENT.   Remarkably pristine 2nd half of the 1800’s American surveying compass of diminutive size.  This handsome precision instrument is made entirely of brass with a silvered compass card indicating the cardinal points of the compass.  The card is encompassed by a reflector ring engraved in single degrees 0 - 360 marked in 10’s beginning at “N.”  It is swept by a fine compass needle balanced on a brass cap with agate pivot.  The blackened end of the needle points to magnetic North.  A caging device is provided to lock the needle in place when not in use.  To take a bearing, two folding sight vanes are provided at North and South respectively.  Its original old wavy glass crystal protects the mechanism.  The instrument fits neatly into its formed wooden case with folding lid, velvet-lined interior and textured Moroccan leather covering.  Two folding eye hooks provide positive closure   The case measures 4 ¼ inches in diameter and 1 ¼ inches thick when closed.   The compass body itself measures 3 ½ inches and the compass is 3 inches in diameter.  The condition of the entire presentation is superb.  The bright lacquered finish on the body of the compass does not belie its 150 years.  339


COMPASS
DETAIL

BACK
CASE

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9.69  WOODEN DIPTYCH COMPASS.  Very high quality late 19th century pocket compass of French manufacture made for the English speaking market.  This precision device is constructed of two mahogany sections known as “leaves.”  The bottom leaf houses the compass and the upper is the lid.   The compass rose is in two layers of silvered brass.  The upper ring is marked in two degree increments from 0 to 360.  The lower section is marked with the cardinal points.   The left side is additionally marked in degrees of inclination from 0 to 90 up and down, in 2 degree increments.  A pivoting plumb bob suspended on the central pivot allows the user to determine the inclination of an object or angle of a sighting. A knurled knob in the upper right quadrant provides a locking function for the compass needle.  The lid is secured to the body by the means of two very fine brass hook and eyed closures.   This exceptional scientific instrument is signed “MADE IN FRANCE” on the lower half of the dial.  The body measures 3 inches square and the compass opening is 2 3/8 inches in diameter.  Condition is superb.  Absolutely the finest we have ever seen in an instrument of this type.  The best.  279


closed
dial

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9.70  COMPASS/SUN DIAL.   Early 19th century English “floating gnomon” sundial and compass, according to Porter’s patent design.  This pocket compass features a stiff paper card with the periphery calibrated in half points of the compass and marked with the cardinal and intercardinal points.  The inner card is marked in hours of the day from 4 A.M. to 8 P.M. in Roman numerals sub-divided by 15 minute increments.  The south point is decorated with a charming sun burst face and the north point is distinguished by the traditional fleur-de-lis.  The triangular gnomon is of brass and the body of the compass, including its press-fit lid is of turned boxwood in old paint.  Originally this sundial would have had a domed glass cover.  Even so, it is totally functional.  2 ¼ inches in diameter.  The compass card is lively and the lid presses on the body with a tight fit.  Great old external surface!  A marvelous working timekeeper which precedes precision watches, and is at least 175 years old!  395

English inventor and scientific instrument maker Samuel Porter was a member of the Institute of Instrument Makers and worked at Norfolk Place, Shacklewell, London.  In 1824 he patented this floating gnomon sundial.   It is a very clever device which works like a magnetic compass, therefore the user did not need to align his sundial with North in order to tell the correct time.


EXTERIOR
DIAL

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9.71  COMPASS/SUN DIAL.   Early 1800’s pocket compass with sun dial feature of French manufacture.  This unusual example, in pocket watch form, features a brass body with silver compass rose marked in two degree increments mark by 20’s.  The compass needle with agate pivot is very lively and is equipped with a compass lock feature by means of a button on the side.  The sun dial function is unique in that the brass dial is mounted on the glass by mean of two screws.  The gnomon has a classic adjust feature using a bird’s beak to indicate the latitude from 60 to 40.  The gnomon fold flat when not in use.  A pivoting suspension ring is at the apex.  This very precise scientific instrument measures 2 ¼ inches in diameter and 2 7/8 inches inclusive of the bow.  Excellent original condition.  Fully functional.  A beautiful, truly rare example!   579


DIAL
REVERSE

GNOMON

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9.72  COMPASS/SUN DIAL.   Very high quality late 18th or very early 19th century equinoctial sun dial of English manufacture.  This early dial is constructed entirely of brass.  The central compass rose is silvered brass finely engraved with the cardinal and intercardinal points of the compass divided in 2 degree increments.  The major compass points are beautifully-engraved.  The folding hour scale has a gnomon indicating the hours of the day from IIII to VIII.  2 5/8 inches in diameter.  Superb original condition.  779


PERSPECTIVE
FOLDED

INCLINED
CARD

 

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9.73  STEERING COMPASS.  Very unusual first quarter of the 1800’s English pocket compass of all brass construction with a paper dry card.  This type of compass was designed for use in a rowboat or sailing canoe, and card allowed it to be read in either a fore or aft format.  The card with brass agate pivot has a very precise compass rose indicating the cardinal and intercardinal points of the compass down to single points as indicated by sunburst rays emanating from the center.  Amazingly, it is also calibrated in single degrees 0-360 marked by 10’s on the periphery.  The outer edge of the card is decoratively-embellished with recurring patterns.  North is designated by a classic fleur-de-lis.  Just below it the maker’s triangular mark reading “TRADE MARK LONDON” with a folding sundial in the center.  The unique feature of this little compass is that it is equipped with a press-on brass cover fitted with a sighting hair to precisely read the compass heading.  There is a small circular sighting “window” through which the observation can be made.  The cover also serves to protect the compass card.  A mere 1 7/8 inches in diameter and ½ inch thick.  Outstanding original condition.  The compass is lively and accurate.  A genuine nautical scientific instrument much more refined than a novelty or toy.  195


PERSPECTIVE
HEADINGS

COMPASS HEADINGS
COMPONENTS

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9.74  EARLY ENGLISH SUN DIAL.  High quality English sundial of all brass construction made by “Beilby, Bristol” as engraved on the base of the gnomon and again on the compass card “Beilby Maker, Bristol.”  This beautifully-crafted instrument has a folding gnomon supported on a brass crescent decoratively-engraved with floral vines.  The periphery of the dial is engraved with hours of the day in Roman numerals beginning with IIII A.M. on the left and ending with VIII P.M. on the right.  The hours are subdivided by tenths equating to 6 minute intervals.  The engraving is very precise and obviously hand-done.  Inside, the compass rose is printed on paper with the cardinal points and each of the sub points identified.  North is marked by a fleur-de-lis.  The compass needle is of blued iron with a classic, archaic-style “pyramidal” brass pivot.  The card is protected under its original old wavy glass.  This sundial/compass comes complete with its original knurled brass cover which fits tightly onto the compass body with a press fit.  The compass needle is lively.  We have personally tested this sun dial, and while our latitude is not that of England, the time reading so obtained was surprisingly accurate!  A very, very nice example of a quality time telling instrument which is a relatively late throw over from centuries earlier when sun dials were the only means of telling time.  By this date, 1815, pocket watches had evolved to the point that sun dials were rapidly becoming obsolete.  So to find an original in tact and in such good condition is remarkable! 779

Charles Beilby was an optical instrument maker, mathematical instrument maker and a philosophical instrument maker working from his residence in Bristol, England in the very  brief period from 1816-1819.    As a result, extant examples of his output are very rare.  (Gloria Clifton, “British Scientific Instrument Makers 1550-1851,” 1995, The National Maritime Museum,  Philip Wilson Publishers, Ltd., London)


PERSPECTIVE
CARD

CARD
COMPONENTS

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9.54  TOOTH KEY.   Genuine 19th century dentist’s extraction tool.  This fearsome relic of antiquated medicine consists of a hand-forged iron shaft riveted into a lovely turned ivory handle.  The pivoting “key” at the bottom of the instrument allowed  the doctor (or more likely the barber) to firmly grasp the ailing tooth,  then twist it out with a quick rotation of the handle!  Painful but practical, this was the state-of-the art in the mid 1800’s.  5 ¾ inches long and 3 ½ inches wide on the handle.  Excellent original condition showing good age and use but no abuse.  A  medical rarity!  495


PERSPECTIVE
TOP VIEW
REVERSE

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9.68   MICROSCOPE SLIDES.  Full case set of high quality set of professionally prepared microscope slides. The exterior of the hardwood case is labeled "PATHOLOGY."  The case is secured by 2 pivoting brass hooks.  Opening the hinged lid reveals 2 wooden trays containing 6 slides each. Cleverly, the bottom is also hinged allowing the trays to slide out to the front.  Each slide is under thin glass and is labeled as to the specimen and the maker. Some are printed, some are labeled in free hand. Makers include "General Biological Supply House, Chicago; Derm. Dept. USC Med. Los Angeles; Cardeuant Laboratories, Chicago; and California Botanical Materials Company, Palo Alto, Calif."  The specimens include "Human Foetus (Fetus), Glomus Tumor, Small Intestine, Fungi, Section of Sambucuo and Polytrichum commune Anheridia," and a cross section of a late term Human Fetus Foot, among others. Slides are in good condition and contained in their specially housed form-fitted wooden trays within the case.  One slide has a chip off, but an additional blank slide is included.  The cardboard to which the slides are attached is substantially foxed and could use replacing.  Each slide measures approximately 1 by 3 inches. The case is 8 1/2 by 4 3/4 and 1 1/4 inch thick.  The case is in well-used but in decent condition.  A rare set.  139


BOX
CONTENTS

TRAY
DETAIL

SLIDE DETAIL


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9.67  EARLY DRAUGHTSMAN’s COMPASS.   A fine 19th century drawing compass.  This precision instrument is made of nickel silver with a tight leaf hinge apex connecting both articulated limbs.  The center pivot has an adjustable needle and the drawing lead is also removable.  5 ½ inches long closed.  Precisely opens and closes to draw a perfect circle in excess of 20 inches in diameter or any part thereof.  Outstand original condition in all respects.  Without a doubt, the finest quality made.  79


open
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9.65  DRAUGHTSMAN’s SET.   Award winning French architectural/mechanical drafting set from the mid-19th century.  This fully complete high quality drawing instrument set bears a label in the lid proclaiming the award “MEDAILLE  D’ ARGENT Marque de Fabrique EXPOSITION DE PARIS 1867.”  It is comprised of 17 instruments in 3 tiers.  The central velvet-lined tray contains 12 superb drawing instruments.  It lifts out to reveal an ivory parallel ruler, an ivory sector, a boxwood French curve and a right triangle in the bottom compartment.  In the lid is a celluloid protractor calibrated down to ½ degrees.  The instruments in the tray are complete and original, including an ivory-handled pen, a complex ivory-handled compass, a proportional divider and much more.  All are set in their lovely rosewood case with decorative brass string inlay in the lid and the original box lock with skeleton key.  The case measures 9 ¼ inches wide, 5 inches deep and 2 inches thick.  The condition is absolutely excellent considering this full set is a century and a half old!  695



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9.52   POCKET COMPASS.  Very nice 19th century gentleman’s traveling compass of French manufacture.  This precision instrument is all brass with a polished glass crystal covering the silvered brass compass card within.  The rose is marked with the cardinal and intercardinal points of the compass and is divided in degrees around the periphery by 2’s, marked in 20 degree intervals.  There is also an engraved arrow pointing NNO (North Northwest, 344 degrees West or a “negative declination”) indicating true north vs. magnetic north at the time the compass was made for use in North America.  The fine steel compass needle with agate pivot is blued on the southern point and silvered on the north.   It overlies a large black rotating arrow which is set by revolving the bottom of the knurled case.  This can be used to mark a bearing or set a course.  The compass needle, the rotating arrow, the cardinal points and the point of variation are all marked with their old luminescent paint for night use.   A second complication is in the form of the caging device which locks the compass needle into place when not it use.  It is operated by a small knob at the 9 o’clock position.  The bottom of the brass case exhibits an unusual delicate interlocking diamond pattern. This hand compass is pocket watch size and has a classic bow and loop at the “S” position just like a pocket watch.  Exactly 2 inches in diameter and 2 3/4 inches tall overall.  Lovely original condition showing genuine age and careful use.  The compass is lively and accurate.  129


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9.99   18th CENTURY COMPASS.   Particularly fine early to mid-18th century traveler’s compass, unmarked, but certainly of English manufacture.  This genuine old relic has a beautifully engraved paper card mounted within its all brass case.  The cardinal, inter-cardinal and sub-cardinal points of the compass are all identified, with North bearing a classic fleur-de-lis.  The periphery of the card is also calibrated in single degrees, marked by 10’s of degrees in each quadrant.  Of special note is the elaborately decorated card, embellished with floral and “wheat head” designs, very indicative of such instruments produced in the early 1700’s.  The blued, soft iron compass needle also exhibits its great age with a classic “winged” pyramidal brass cap and finely shaped tips.  The compass is protected by its original old wavy glass and has a recess in the rim at the North point for sighting on a corresponding notch in the opposite rim at South.  With that, this superb early compass even retains its original screw-on brass cover!  3 3/8th inches in diameter and 1 inch thick.  Absolutely remarkable condition for an instrument of this type, well over 250 years old!  895



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9.49  CIVIL WAR SURGEON’s KIT.  Authentic 3rd quarter of the 19th century American field surgeon’s kit containing all manner of state-for-the-art (for its time) surgical tools.  There are no less than 36 fearsome implements in this large set  including a leg amputation saw, finger amputation saw, skull saw, chain saw, Trepanning drill, 5 amputation knives, several picks and probes, 2 bone snips, and various other suturing needles and attachments.  Most of the implements are signed by the maker “TIEMANN & CO” and those with handles are made from vulcanized hard rubber following Goodyear’s 1855 patent.   The chain saw has ebony handles as does the large gouge, also signed “TIEMANN & CO.”  The entire set is housed in its original lovely brass-bound mahogany case with hinged lid, skeleton key lock, lift-out tray and removable panel in the lid.   The lid bears the oval makers label reading, “G. TIEMANN & CO. Manufacturers – of – Surgical Instruments 107 Park Row, N.Y.”  The inside of the case is lined in red felt with form-fitted impressions for each implement.  As such some implements are conspicuous in their absence.  The case measures 16 ½ inches long by 7 inches wide and is 4 inches thick.  The condition of this set is “well used,” no doubt in desperate battlefield conditions because there are blood stains and a number of the tools have minor to moderate corrosion from contact with blood.  The two snippers are the most obvious.  Nevertheless, this is a large, complex set from the pre-antiseptic era, which graphically recalls in human terms the phrase “bite the bullet!”  Price Request 

In the “Directory of American Military Goods Dealers & Makers 1785-1915,” Combined Edition, 1999 by Bruce Bazelon and William McGuinn, the entry reads:  “George Tiemann & Co., NYC.   Advertised as established in 1837.  Made surgical instruments in the Civil War period & listed from at least 1860-67.”


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9.64  CASED HYDROMETER.  Fine, second half of the 19th century hydrometer made by “Loftus, 521 Oxford Dt. London” as stamped into the maker’s label on the top of the case and again hand-engraved on the float.  This Sikes-type hydrometer, invented by its namesake John Sikes in 1824, was used in a variety of applications to test the specific gravity of a liquid.   Most frequently it was used to check the proof of spirits in distilling and to test the purity of water in steam boilers of the era.  This totally complete set features the gilded brass float marked with a graduated stem reading from “0” at the top to “10” at the bottom, divided in 2/10th % increments.  The stem is engraved “Sikes No. 9031” on one side and “LOFTUS London” on the other.  The full set of 9 interchangeable weights ranging from 10 to 90 % is present.  Each is engraved with the matching serial number “9031,” along with the maker’s initials “W.L.”  Because the specific gravity of a liquid is also dependant on temperature, a mercury thermometer with ivory scale is provided.  The scale ranges from 25 to 100 Fahrenheit marked in single degrees.  The top of the scale is signed “Loftus 521 Oxford St London.”  In use the float was loaded with the 90 and 10 weights (100).  When in pure water it would read 0 at the top of the stem, indicating 100% pure.  Salt water, being more dense would cause the float to rise, and alcohol being less dense, would cause it to sink.  The sum of the values of the weights required to bring the stem scale to equilibrium indicates the density of the liquid tested, higher or lower in percentage points, relative to pure water.  The hinged mahogany case is a thing of beauty with inlaid holly stringing on the lid and splined corners.  Two brass hooks assure a tight closure.  The inside of the lid is satin-lined and the instrument trays are dark purple felt.  The case is 8 inches long by 2 inches thick and 3 ¾ inches wide.  The float is 6 1/8th inches long and 1 3/8 inches in diameter at the widest.  Outstanding original condition in all respects.  The thermometer is accurate and the float registers 100 when immersed in pure water.  Remarkable for an instrument well over 130 years old!  429


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9.66 REFERENCE BOOK. Gerard L'E. Turner, "Collecting Microscopes," Christie's International Collectors Series, 1981, Mayflower Books, New York, 120 pages, hard cover with dust jacket and protective cover. Here is what is widely regarded as "THE" indispensable first reference for antiquarian microscope enthusiasts. Long out of print, this comprehensive reference is fully illustrated in color with chapters on optics, microscope construction and operation, the simple microscope, tripod and drum, the side pillar microscope, microscopes in Victorian England, 19th C. continental microscopes, the projection microscope, microscope accessories and practical hints for the collector. Also contained are appendices on museums and other collections, a price guide and bibliography. As new condition. 59


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9.62   CASED DEPTH METER.   Very finest quality ship’s hydrometer used to determine the specific gravity of water at the ship’s keel to compute its draught.   This precision instrument is made of nickeled brass and is signed “T.L. AINSLEY CARDIFF BARRY & NEWPORT’ on one side of the register and marked “TEMP 60” on the other.  The register is graduated from .00 to .25 in 25/100 increments.  It is housed in its rich original machine dove-tailed mahogany box with blue satin lining. A printed insert in the bottom reads “Board of Trade Hydrometer Tables” for indicating the “Draught in Feet for the rise in Density.”  The handsome solid mahogany box measures 9 ½ inches long by 2 3/8 inches wide and 2 1/8 inches high.  Nicely hinged, it is complete with it 2 functional brass hook closures.  The instrument itself measures 8 3/8 inches long and   inches in diameter on the float.  Beautiful original condition.   95 


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9.63   BUBBLE LEVEL.  Early 1900’s American pocket level used by surveyors and architects to lay out a level line of sight at a distance.  This precision instrument is all brass in its classic black crinkle finish and is marked “LIETZ 8040-00” on the top of the barrel. The eyepiece telescopes in and out to increase or decrease the observer’s field of view.  What appears in that field is a split circular image with the object on the right and a level line with bubble on the left.  In use, the object is seen to be in perfect level alignment with the observer’s eye when the bubble is centered on the line.  This is cleverly accomplished by means of a prism and small glass vial mounted on the top of the sighting tube.  Of special note is the fact this scientific instrument comes complete with its sturdy, sewn leather carrying case with snap cover and belt loop.  The case measures 6 ¼ inches long by 2 inches wide.  The instrument itself is 1 inch in diameter and telescopes from 5 ½ to 7 3/8 inches long.  Perfect original condition.  139

Adolph Lietz was born in Leubeck, Germany in 1860.  He immigrated to San Francisco in 1879.   He soon found employment in the scientific instrument trade working in the instrument shop of Carl Rahsskopff.   By 1882, the talented maker and entrepreneur, was able to open his own business.   His first business, "Lietz and Mauerhan" lasted  only a little over a year.   After Mauerhan departed, Lietz partnered with Conrad Weinmann, who had worked alongside Weule during their employ by Carl Rahsskopff in the early years.  The company,  known as "A. Lietz & Co.," produced surveying instruments and related scientific instruments.  The firm was incorporated in 1892 under the name "The A. Lietz Company."   In 1910 a complete line of drafting tools and engineering equipment was added.  But by 1947, after 65 years of production, the firm discontinued manufacturing.



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9.47  AMERICAN PRECISION BAROMETER / ALTIMETER.  Very highest quality surveyor’s portable barometer and altimeter.  This all brass precision devise has 2 silvered brass dials,   The stationary center dial is marked from 24 to 31 inches of mercury calibrated in 2/100th increments and marked “INCHES PRESSURE.”  It is additionally marked “Compensated For Temperature” at the top and is signed “Taylor Instrument Company, Rochester, N.Y. – U.S.A.  E.D. No. 4226.”  The outer dial rotates by means of the stem wind pocket watch feature at the top.   On the periphery it is calibrated in “METERS” from 0 to 1800 in 10’s of meters.  The inner scale is marked in “FEET” from -1000 to 6000 feet in 20 foot increments.  Interestingly then, this instrument was designed to also be used in the few places on earth below sea level and in mines!  The knurled outer rim of the barometer revolves to set a very fine needle pinpointing changes in the reading.  The dial is protected by a beveled glass crystal fitted into the knurled revolving bezel.  The body of the barometer is brass in a classic instrument black crackle finish.  The back is equipped with a set screw for adjusting the barometric reading, and the “winding stem” has a typical bow.  It comes complete with its sturdy hand-stitched leather carrying case with blue felt lining, belt loop attachment and loops for a carrying strap.  3 inches in diameter and 1 3/8 inches thick.  4 ¼ inches high inclusive of the bow.   Outstanding original condition showing good age but careful actual use and absolutely no abuse.  Extremely accurate!  In fact we have seen the needle register a change in altitude just by walking up a flight of stairs! 449 


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9.60  PRECISION BALANCING SCALES.  Extra high quality 19th century American scales used for weighing diamonds, pharmaceuticals and precious gems.   This handsome offering consists of a rich, solid mahogany cabinet glazed on all four sides with a counter-balanced front door which slides up and down effortlessly, remaining in any position.  This genuine scientific instrument was made by the well-known “Henry Troenmer Company of Philadelphia” as signed on the enclosed weight set in the drawer.  The all brass mechanism features a balance beam on an agate pivot pedestal with two cups also suspended on agate pivots.  The beam is engaged by a knurled knob on the front which raises it into the weighing position or lowers it to rest.  When in the weighing position, a very fine indicator needle passes over the blank ivory “reader plate” to show the measurement.   To provide an accurate reading the scale is equipped with a universal bubble level to ensure it is absolutely level.  The precise measuring pans are each stamped “P. SESANANTRA gr” with a number of proof marks.  In turn the drawer below is a complete weight box containing a full set of weights calibrated from 100 grams down to an amazing 2/10ths of a gram!  The combination provides for any weight in between to be accurately measured.  13 3/8 inches high by 15 ¾ inches wide and 7 ¾ inches deep.  Good original condition noting signs of wear and actual use as expected.   A very decorative curiosity for the office or studio.   549  Special PackagingBack to Top


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9.02  POCKET SUN DIAL.   Rare, incredibly old sun dial made entirely of ivory with pewter plates and brass fittings.  This amazing relic is of French originand represents what is known as a “Dieppe Magnetic Azimuth or Bloud-type dial.”  It is attributed to the early Parisian dial maker Jacques Senecal and datescirca 1660!  It is of the diptych type, meaning it has two leaves or tablets, hinged in the middle.  The outside top of the upper leaf is equipped with a pewter equinoctial dial for telling time by means of a pin gnomon.  The inner side is fitted with a lunar volvelle, allowing it to be used to determine the time at night when the moon was visible.  The main part of the dial occupies the lower leaf of the diptych.  A recessed bowl accommodates a delicate magnetic needle suspended on a pyramidal brass pivot.  Cleverly, this dial actually represents a form of mechanical computer.  The underside of the leaf holds a rotating disc engraved with the months and days of the year.  It is connected to the interior hour scale below the compass needle which acts as the gnomon.  Rotating the outer disc to the corresponding day moves the hour scale within setting it to the proper “altitude” for the time of year.  A typical horizontal dial with string gnomon is also provided, with the hours engraved in the ivory around the periphery of the compass rose.  In the bottom plate of the dial there is a finely-engraved paper card, the outer edge of which is marked in degrees by tens in four quadrants.  Within is an 8-pointed star with a fleur-de-lis at the North point.  The other star points are marked with the latitudes of important European cities such as “Paris, Venise, Rheims, Roma, Londre,” etc.  It is alsoequipped with a clever pivoting brass “stay” which holds the lid open, fitting neatly into a recessed slot when not in use. This lovely instrument is profusely engraved with decorative pinwheel elements on the periphery of each of its tablets, inside and out.   There are two very early pewter repairs in the lid to stabilize an age crack, and the very tip of one of the tiny brass hooks is off.  Otherwise this 350 year old instrument is in amazing condition for its age.  A museum piece! Price Request

 Literature:  Hester Higton, “Sundials, An Illustrated History,” 2001, Philip Wilson Publishers, Ltd., London.  Page 89 depicts a very similardial described as, “Dieppe magnetic azimuth dial by Jacques Senecal, c. 1660.  The inside of this dial has a lunar vovelle in the upper leaf and the main dialset into the lower one.  Collection of the National Maritime Museum, London.”

This sun dial represents the oldest antique we have ever offered in our 35 yearsin business.


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9.57  APOTHECARY CHEST.   Especially nice, especially early ship captain’s medicine chest.  This late 1700’s ship’s "chemist's box" is undoubtedly English, owing to the complexity of its design and precise construction.  It is made entirely of rich, flame grain mahogany painstakingly fitted together with amazingly small dove-tailed joints.  The folding top with ornate brass carrying handle hinges back on two brass stop hinges to reveal 15 compartments for stoppered bottles of which 14 are still present.  Evidencing their age, these hand-blown glass bottles have ground stoppers and pontils on the bottoms.  A few have chips in the rims, but none are cracked or broken.  Two have labels and two have contents.  The inside lid of the case is lined in its original velvet.  The chest is secured with two functional brass locks, one in each door, complete with functional skeleton key.  The diamond-shaped key escutcheons are inlaid with rare sea tortoise shell!   When unlocked the diptych front opens in the middle on double brass hinges to reveal 12 cathedral-like facades displaying the contents of their bottles.  Beneath these receptacles are 6 drawers, each with decoratively-turned ivory pulls.  Construction is absolutely of the highest order using impossibly tiny hand dove-tailed joints!  9 inches tall by 7 ¾ inches square.  When open the maximum width is 16 inches.  Considering its 200+ years, this apothecary chest is in excellent original condition.  Some cracks in the thinnest wood facings are noticeable.  But these have been stabilized and there is no structural damage.  All hinges and drawers function smoothly.  This is one of the nicest and most delicate examples we have ever seen!   2149 Special PackagingBack to Top

The vast majority of merchant ships from the mid-19th century and earlier did not carry a doctor.  That responsibility fell to the ship’s Captain who doubled as the ship’s doctor.  With little if any training, it is remarkable that a Captain could more often than not effectively treat his crew’s ailments with such a chest on voyages lasting up to several years!


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9.59    POCKET SURVEYING INSTRUMENT.   Remarkably pristine 2nd half of the 1800’s American surveying compass of diminutive size.  This handsome precision instrument is made entirely of brass with a silvered compass card indicating the cardinal points of the compass.  The card is encompassed by a reflector ring engraved in single degrees 0 - 360 marked in 10’s beginning at “N.”  It is swept by a fine compass needle balanced on a brass cap with agate pivot.  The blackened end of the needle points to magnetic North.  A caging device is provided to lock the needle in place when not in use.  To take a bearing, two folding sight vanes are provided at North and South respectively.  Its original old wavy glass crystal protects the mechanism.  The instrument fits neatly into its formed wooden case with folding lid, velvet-lined interior and textured Moroccan leather covering.  Two folding eye hooks provide positive closure   The case measures 4 ¼ inches in diameter and 1 ¼ inches thick when closed.   The compass body itself measures 3 ½ inches and the compass is 3 inches in diameter.  The condition of the entire presentation is superb.  The bright lacquered finish on the body of the compass does not belie its 150 years.  339


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9.58  EARLY ENGLISH THERMOMETER.  Genuine mid-19th century gentleman’s traveling pocket thermometer with ivory scale signed by the maker “CARTER, EXETER” at the top.  This antique mercury bulb thermometer is marked in single degrees Fahrenheit from 0 to 110 with the classic notations, “FREEZING, TEMPERATE, SUM,’R HEAT and BLOOD HEAT.”  It is housed in its original wooden case, lined in silk and covered in Moroccan leather.  The hinged case closes on a positive button latch and is equipped with a pivoting brass eyelet at the top for hanging.  The ivory scale also has a silk ribbon rove through the top for hanging independent of the case.  6 ¼ inches long, 1 ¼ inches wide and ½ inch thick.  Untouched original condition showing expected wear from careful use.  Functional and accurate.  249



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9.73

9.73 EARLY SURGICAL TOOL.  Very rare early 19th century surgeon's tool used for the removal of a patient's tonsils. This "Tonsil Guillotine" as it was known, consists of a fearsome sharp probe and two stationary steel orifices connected to a brass shaft terminating in a cross hatched ivory handle. Pulling the handle engages a sliding blade, the guillotine, which in theory would have sliced off the hapless patient's tonsil once engaged by the probe and held by the orifices! Clever in its construction, this no less gruesome device bears decorative elements in its construction reminiscent of instruments from the Queen Ann period. It measures 10 inches long and is in excellent original functioning condition. Both the steel and brass components bear deep patination with surface oxidation, but no rust or corrosion. The ivory handle is sound with only minor staining (blood?). A very rare early surgical tool of museum quality. 795


Elizabeth Bennion in "Antique Medical Instruments," 1979, Sotheby Parke Bernet, London, pictures and describes a similar device with finger pieces on page 108. The photograph is captioned, "Tonsil guillotine, c. 1860, Museum of Historical Medicine, Copenhagen." The text, in part, reads, "Guillotines and forceps were listed in the catalogues from the early nineteenth century and were in two sizes, for adults and children. Tonsil-guillotines are easily recognisable by means of the two parallel sliding rings, one with cutting edge... Unlike many other instruments, the earlier examples tend to be lighter while those of a later date become complicated and cumbersome with elaborate finger pieces. Cased sets with various spare attachments were made c. 1860, but simple steel and brass guillotines have survived from at least ten years earlier." It is our belief that the example here is much earlier than 1850 and thus may in fact represent a prototype!


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9.27

 

9.27  TREPINING DRILL.  Early, famous maker signed doctor’s skull drill as used by surgeons in the 18th and early 19th century.  This especially nice example has a solid ivory hand with decoratively turned ends and cross hatching on the grip.  It is impressed on the sturdy brass shank, “ARNOLD & SONS LONDON.”  It features a fearsomely sharp circular steel blade with serrated edge 7/8ths inches in diameter.  At its center is a sharp pivot which is made adjustable in its penetration of the skull by a sliding component on the shank fixed into place by a small thumbscrew.   The ivory handle measures 3 1/2 inches wide and the overall height of the instrument is 4 ½ inches.  Fine condition showing good age but no abuse.  A rare form medical instrument. 595

James Arnold & Sons was listed in the London directories as having begun work at 32 West Smithfield in 1819 with alternative addresses at Giltspur Street.  (Gloria Clifton, “Directory of British Scientific Instrument Makers 1550-1851,” 1995, National Maritime Museum, London).

These days one can scarcely imagine surgery to the head being done using a manual drill in septic conditions without anesthesia.  At the time, about the best  available was a stiff shot of whisky and a lead bullet!


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9.06

 

9.06 THEOBALD’s PROBES. Unusual set of 19th century American eye doctor’s instruments. This complete set of 8 probes was precisely manufactured of nickel-plated brass. Atop each probe is attached a small double leaf-shaped plaque stamped with two numbers. The numbers indicate the diameter of the probe on each end, ranging in size from the smallest, “1” through the largest, “16.” The set is housed in it original leather-covered hinged wooden case with blue satin lining. A small sliding lock is provided on the front for positive closure. The top of the case is embossed in gold “Set of Theobald’s Probes. The case measures 6 inches long by 3 3/8 inches wide and is 1 inch thick. The exterior leather evidences wear and some minor losses. The interior and contents are perfect. A rare, complete set of early doctor’s tools. 149

In a publication dated 1888, “New Eye Instruments,” J.O. Tansley discusses lachrymal canal or “tear duct” practice at the time, stating that it was “To dilate the canal as much as possible without traumatism.”

Samuel Theobald was born in 1846. He began his Baltimore, Maryland medical practice in 1871. Before his appointment at Johns Hopkins, Dr. Theobald was one of the founders of the Baltimore Eye, Ear and Throat Charity Hospital in 1882. In 1889 he founded the Opthamology Department at John’s Hopkins Hospital. In addition to teaching at the medical school and working in the dispensary, he was known for the development of “Theobald lachrymal probes,” the introduction of boric acid as an effective eye wash, and his book, Prevalent Diseases of the Eye. He was a member of the American Ophthalmological Society for 50 years and served as its 14th President.


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9.46   CIVIL WAR SURGEON’s KIT.  Genuine American Civil War era field surgeon’s amputation kit made by “Tiemann, New York” with matching signatures.  This fearsome yet effective  state-of-the-art “health care” device for its time features 8 implements contained within a fitted mahogany case with red velvet interior.  Each of the items is signed, save for the unique sliding forceps (hemostat) which fills its compartment perfectly and is obviously part of the set.   They consist of 4 amputation knives, a probe, the forceps mentioned and 2 bone saws, the larger of which bears the full signature “Tiemann & Co N-York.”  Each of the implements, save for the forceps, have solid ebony handles with fine cross hatching.  What is missing is the tourniquet, a pair of bone snips, and suturing needles.  (One old example is present).  Each piece is original to the set and fits perfectly into its allotted slot.  The quality solid mahogany case with splined joints has 3 brass hinges, inlaid escutcheon in the lid and the original lock and skeleton key.  There is a professional restoration around the striker plate.  The red lining of this case is telling, given the horrific circumstances under which it was used.  Overall condition of this set is excellent, noting spotting to some of the steel parts which have been subsequently cleaned and polished.  All of the wooden handles are in beautiful original condition.  The box measures 16 inches long by 4 ¼ inches wide and 3 ¼ inches deep.  A genuine Civil War relic of the most poignant kind!  1795

According to Bruce Bazelon and William McGuinn, authors of “A Directory of American Military Good Dealers & Makers 1785-1915,” 1999, REF Publishing, Manassas, Virginia, George Tiemann & Co. were established in 1837. They were makers of surgical instruments in the Civil War period & listed from at least 1860-1867 as surgical instruments at 65 Chatham & 44 Eldridge, NYC.


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9.53 AMERICAN THEODOLITE.   Early 1900’s surveyor’s theodolite by the most respected American scientific manufacturers, Keuffel & Esser Co. New York, 28908” as engraved on the silvered brass dial.  This complex precision instrument is all brass in its original black oxidized finish.  It consists of the central magnetic compass with fine steel needle and agate pivot on a silvered brass compass card showing the cardinal points of the compass divided into 90 degree quadrants marked in single degrees.  The card is encompassed by a second covered scale in a horizontal plane reading from 0-360 clockwise in single degrees and 0-360 counterclockwise by 10’s.  It is overlaid by a vernier which allows a reading down to a single arc minute.  It is operated by a knurled thumbscrew stop with a second tangent fine adjust knob.  In the vertical plane (altitude) a third circle, calibrated in single degrees in 4 quadrants, is attached to the telescope.  A second vernier on the support strut provides that reading to an accuracy of 10 arc minutes.  The rack and pinion focusing telescope with perfect optics is also mounted with two thumbscrews for coarse and fine adjustment of the reading.  The plane of the compass is provided with two functional bubble levels.  Plus the telescope has a third, long level.  To these ends the entire apparatus is mounted on a heavy brass base with 4 knurled leveling screws.  The base is threaded to fit atop a tripod for use in the field, but also comes with its threaded aluminum platform for use on a plane table.  This instrument is complete with its original machine-dovetailed mahogany case.  The instrument stands 10 inches tall and the telescope is 8 inches long fully closed.  The aluminum base measures exactly 6 by 9 inches.  The box is 12 inches tall by 10 inches wide and 7 inches deep.  Condition of the instrument is excellent.  Fully functional and accurate in all respects.  The box is sound but shows wear.  A handsome early American instrument over 100 years old.  595 Special Packaging

The famous scientific instrument-making firm of Keuffel & Esser, respectfully known as “K & E,” was founded in July 1867 by Wilhelm J.D. Keuffel and Herman Esser, both German émigrés.  They began manufacturing surveying instruments in 1885 and incorporated their company in 1889. 
“A Keuffel & Esser Co., New York Railroad transit, serial number 29034, is in the Gurley Museum, manufactured about 1914.”  (Charles E. Smart, “The Makers of Surveying Instruments In America Since 1700,” 1962, Regal Art Press, Troy, New York).  A very similar instrument, captioned “1915 Model Gurley Theodolite,” is pictured on page (ix).



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9.48  EARLY PLANETARIUM.   Important, genuine 18th century solar system model of French manufacture.   This very rare second half of the 1700’s Copernican view of a sun-centered solar system is defined by a brass ball in the middle representing the sun.  It rests atop a brass rod which supports 8 brass arms mounting revolving planets and a brass gearwork device which rotates the earth and its orbiting moon.  Reading outward from the center of the solar system are the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth with its moon, Mars, Ceres, Pallas, Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus.   Each is represented with its lithographed identity done on a paper Maché disc.  The earth is constructed in the traditional manner with a solid wood core overlaid by stenciled gores.  The moon is depicted in ivory.  The heavy brass equatorial ring is engraved with 3 scales.  The outer scale shows the months of the year divided by 5 day increments.  The middle scale indicates the signs of the Zodiac, and the inner scale is calibrated in single degrees by 30 degree arc sectors.  The Meridian ring, intersecting the Equatorial ring at the summer and winter solstices, is marked “0” at the Zenith down to 23 degrees where it is marked “SOLSTICE.”  Intersecting the Solstice ring at 23 degrees is the elliptic which is marked “EQUINOXES” on both sides of the Meridian  The entire presentation is mounted on a cast iron hemispherical frame which supports the equatorial and elliptical rings.  It is mounted to a substantial brass cap atop a turned, ebonized wooden base.  19 inches tall by 12 ¼ inches in diameter.  The wooden pedestal measures 6 ½ inches in diameter at the base.  Truly amazing, beautiful condition.  Museum quality! SOLD Back to Top

Ceres and Pallas were originally considered planets.  But after 1845 and the discovery of asteroid belt, they were reclassified as asteroids.  Uranus was discovered in 1781 but was not officially recognized as planet until 1873.


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9.03  ARMILLARY SPHERE.  Rare early 19th century model of the solar system made by the famous French globe maker Delamarche as printed on the terrestrial globe in the center.  This planetary model is based on the Ptolemaic system devised by early Greek astronomer Claudius Ptolemaeus (A.D. 90 – 128) in which he envisioned the solar system as a set of nested spheres.  Ptolemy’s model depicted the Earth at the center of the solar system, whereas the later (and correct) Copernican system was sun-centered.  This exceptional example features a pewter equatorial ring engraved in single degrees, 0 – 360.  It is supported on a cast iron strut which also houses the brass Meridian ring divided into quadrants of 90 degrees each.  As mounted, the Meridian ring is free to revolve and thus indicates the sun’s declination at any time of the year.  The broad diagonal paper ring is beautifully engraved with the signs of the Zodiac.  The remaining horizontal rings indicate the north and south tropics and the equator.  This especially fine model is in a marvelous state of  preservation, considering the fact that it is over 200 years old!  Museum Quality.   

 The first maker to produce globes in France for use by the general public was Charles-Francois Delamarche (1740-1817).  Delamarche’s workshop was on Rue du Foin, St. Jacques au College Me. Gervais’, Quartier Latin.  Subsequently his addresses were Rue du Jardinet, then  No. 7 Rue du Battour, all Paris.  Likely this sphere is the work of his son and successor, Felix.

The term Armillary sphere comes from the Latin armilla meaning hoop or bracelet.   The earth is shown as a small globe in the center of the sphere which is formed by 2 rings at right angles.  The tropics of Cancer and Capricorn (representing the sun’s maximum North and South declinations from the Equator) and the Arctic and Antarctic circles are represented by narrower rings.  A broad ring crossing the tropic rings represents the ecliptic or path of the sun.  The sphere is mounted within a Meridain ring set into the Equatorial ring.  Practical use of the Armillary sphere as a solar system teaching aid was superseded by the Orrery in the early 18th century.  (A. Major, Maritime Antiques, 1981, Tantivy Press, London).

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