West Sea Company

3. Nautical Instruments

Prices in U.S. Dollars are in GREEN



3.58   EARLY QUADRANT.  Rare, 18th century mariner’s navigational device known as an octant, or more precisely quadrant, because it reads 90 degrees -- one quarter of a circle.  This double reflecting scientific instrument features limbs of exotic ebony with inlaid ivory scales.  The large arc is meticulously scribed in single degrees from -5 to 95, subdivided to 20 minutes, marked by 5’s.  Telling of its early manufacture are the series of 3 * on either end of the scale.  Such decorations were found on backstaves 200 years earlier!  The scale is swept by the index arm having an inlaid “0”-centered vernier scale.  This was known as the type “A” vernier introduced around 1770.  Together they provide a reading to an accuracy of about 1 arc minute.  What is remarkable is that the calibrations were engraved by hand, done prior to the widespread use of Ramsden’s diving engine invented in 1773.  This handsome instrument has a large flat brass index arm boldly and beautifully-engraved in cursive script “Wm Mann Fecit Liverpool.”  Fecit of course is the early Latin term for “He made it” popularly used by makers in the 18th century and earlier.  The arm runs over the large arc with a single thumbscrew stop without a fine adjustment.  The quadrant is complete with index and horizon mirrors and a full set of 4 pivoting index shades.  The middle “T” brace retains the blank ivory maker’s label and its original ivory pencil which was used to record readings on the inlaid trapezoidal ivory notepad on the reverse.  To take sights a singular brass peep sight is provided.  On the reverse are the mirror adjustment apparatus and 3 brass “feet” for support when not in use.  This museum quality instrument measures 17 ¼ inches tall and 13 ¾ inches wide.  It is in excellent overall condition considering its 240+ years.  1695

William Mann (I) worked as a mathematical instrument maker on Castle Street, Liverpool in 1774, moving to St. George’s Dock Passage in 1781.  (Gloria Clifton, “Dictionary of British Scientific Instrument Makers 1550-1851,” 1995, National Maritime Museum, Philip Wilson Publishers, London.)

For further information, please see our web article “Evolution of the Sextant” @ http://www.westsea.com/captains-log/evolutionofthesextant.html


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3.56  INCLINOMETER.  Delightful, near miniature ship’s pilot house clinometer made by the famous British instrument making firm Sestrel as boldly marked on the dial, below which is  “MADE IN ENGLAND.”  The flawless white enamel dial bears a scale indicating the heel port and starboard up to 45 degrees calibrated in single degrees marked by 10’s.  Each end of the scale is embellished with a nautical fleu-de-lis.  A free swinging pendulum indicates the reading.  When not in use the pendulum can be locked on center by means of a knurled thumbscrew at the bottom of the case.  The case is bright solid brass with a heavy cast bezel housing the beveled glass crystal.  The base of the case flares to a flange containing three holes for mounting to the bulkhead.  The flange measures 5 1/8 inches in diameter.  The dial is 3 5/8 inches in diameter and the case is 2 ½ inches deep.  Condition is outstanding, cosmetically perfect and functional in all respects.  A fine nautical instrument.  239


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3.57  EARLY SEXTANT.  Particularly nice mariner’s sextant of English manufacture dating from the second quarter of the 19th century.   The large arc is engraved “Youle 83 Leadenhall St. London.”  This all brass navigational instrument is of early form with an inlaid silver scale calibrated from -5 to 150 degrees subdivided in 15 arc minute increments, marked by 10’s.  The silver vernier inset into the braced index arm allows a reading with an accuracy of    arc seconds.  To aid in taking the reading a pivoting magnified is provided.   The classic “T” frame is cast brass in its original blackened finish (to prevent glare during sun shots).  This instrument retains both index and horizon mirrors and a full set of 4 index filters and 3 horizon filters, all in excellent condition.   The back is equipped with its sculpted mahogany handle and 2 brass “feet” for alignment in the box.  The sight tube holder has an adjustable height feature and accommodates all 5 sight tubes.  These consist of the long telescope with cross hairs, short telescope, night telescope, peep sight and interchangeable tube for varying the power of the long telescope.  The screw-on eyepiece sun filer is present as is the rarely-found adjusting screw driver.  Its presence indicates the care lavished on it by its owner Captain.  All components are housed in the especially lovely keystone mahogany case with fine dovetailed construction.  Amazingly, there are no cracks in the lid and it bears the trade label of the famous American instrument makers and ships’ chandlers “T. S. & J.D. Negus, New York.”  The case has all brass hardware including 2 hook and eye closures, the original lock and the brass escutcheon!  The instrument itself measures 11 inches wide on the large arc and the index arm is 10 inches long.  The box measures 13 inches wide by 11 inches long and is 4 ½ inches thick.  This offering is totally complete and in exceptionally fine, untouched, original condition.  Truly museum quality.  1095

William Youle was listed at 83 Leadenhall Street, London in 1845 as a spectacle maker as well as a  mathematical and philosophical instrument maker.  (Gloria Clifton, “”British Scientific Instrument Makers 1550-1851,” 1995, The National Maritime Museum, Philip Wilson Publishers, London.)



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3.52/5.77  CIVIL WAR NAVY SEXTANT.   Very rare navigator’s sextant made for the U.S. Navy by “Stackpole & Brother, New York, U.S. Navy” as beautifully hand-engraved on the large arc.  This handsome American-made instrument has a cast bronze frame with brass index arm sweeping the inlaid silver scale.  The scale reads from -5 to 120 degrees divided down to 20 arc minutes marked in 10 degree increments.  The inset sterling silver vernier scale reads from 0 to 20 arc minutes divided down to 30 arc seconds.  To aid in taking a reading a pivoting magnifier is mounted on the index arm.  This sextant is complete with both index and horizon mirrors, and a full set of 4 index filters and 3 horizon filters, all in excellent condition.  It has a height adjustable sight holder operated by a large knurled knob on the reverse.  The back of the sextant is equipped with its early style sculpted ebony handle and 2 long mounting “feet.”  The index arm measures 9 ½ inches long and the large arc is exactly 9 inches wide.  Excellent restored condition throughout.  The large silver scale is faint but still legible.  A remarkable piece of American Naval history at least 155 years old!  1795

Civil War items, particularly U.S. Navy items, are rare and highly sought after by collectors.

William Stackpole was born in Ireland in 1819 and his brother Robert was born in 1823.  Both William and Robert immigrated to Baltimore, Maryland with their parents in 1833.  Once there, William apprenticed to a manufacturer of mechanical engineering instruments.  The Stackpole's moved to New York City in 1843.   The New York directories listed William Stackpole, mathematical instrument maker, from 1843 to 1848.   In 1851 Robert joined his brother in the business forming the firm of Stackpole and Brother.  Robert died in Brooklyn in 1873.  But William carried on the firm until his death in 1895.  (Charles E.  Smart, “The Makers Of Surveying Instruments In America Since 1700,” Regal Art Press, Troy, new York, 1962).  



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3.55  EARLY AMERICAN BOXED COMPASS WITH PROVENANCE.  Classic 2nd quarter 1800’s American boxed compass by perhaps America’s most famous makers and ship’s chandlers “THAXTER & SON. BOSTON” as boldly engraved on the center of the paper card backed with mica!  The finely engraved compass rose is marked in points and half points with the cardinal and intercardinal points identified.  The knurled brass cover retains its original old wavy glass held in with plaster of Paris.  The compass is mounted in its solid brass weighted bowl slung in gimbals, mounted in its original mahogany box with copper fasteners.  Remarkably, the box still retains its original sliding lid!  The side is stenciled “DORY COMPASS.”  The compass measures 3 1/8 inches in diameter while the box is 4 7/8 inches square and 3 ¾ inches high.  Truly amazing original condition after nearly 200 years!  A rare find offered at a ridiculously low price in these Coved times.  This is a museum piece which could easily fetch $600 or more.  One of the nicest examples of its type we have handled in over 40 years.  Rare to find a ship's name. A keeper of the first order! 499

A faint pencilled inscription on the underside of the lid reads, "Sloop Rambler, Apr 1890, (Unlegible)." The sloop RAMBLER, essentialy a ketch, was homeported out of Gloucester, Massachusetts. She was 37.6 feet long and displaced 8.26 tons. ("List of Merchant Vessels of the United States," 1891 edition, Treasury Department Bureau of Navigation, page 216).

Samuel Thaxter was born in 1769, and was apprenticed to William Williams.  Thaxter initially started his business at Butler’s Row in 1796, moving to 49 State Street in 1806.  The firm name changed to Samuel Thaxter & Son in 1826 located at 125 State Street, Boston.  (M.V. Brewington, “The Peabody Museum collection of Navigating Instruments,” 1963, Peabody Museum, Salem, Massachusetts).


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3.49  VERY RARE SEXTANT.  Truly the Rolls Royce of navigational instruments!  This double frame (also known as a “pillar frame”) sextant was made by “Henry Hughes & Son Ltd 59 Fenchurch St London” as engraved on the large arc.  This type of sextant was invented by the renowned English instrument maker Edward Troughton in 1788.  So functional and so precise was its construction that the form lasted well over a century!  This amazing example is all brass meticulously fashioned with over 250 tiny parts, each individually hand-made in the old school tradition.  All of the parts bear the hidden production number “40” and marks to align the one-of-a-kind hand-made fittings.  Above the signature is the inscription “Platina & Gold 4927” indicating the large scale is engraved on platinum and the vernier scale is solid gold!  The arc is calibrated in single degrees divided by 10 arc minutes from -5 – 160 effectively making this a “quintant.”  The magnificent solid gold vernier scale is marked from 0 – 10 divided to single arc seconds.*  To accomplish such a reading a sophisticated pivoting vernier magnifier with glass light diffuser is provided above the scale.  This is the most complicated device of its type we have ever seen, and we have seen literally hundreds.  The high luster solid brass frame is a piece of jewelry.  It mounts the index arm with thumbscrew stop and endless tangent fine adjustment.  The apex has the index mirror reflecting into the split horizon mirror.  This instrument is complete with its full complement of 4 folding index filters and 3 horizon filters.  The height adjustable sighting tube holder operates smoothly by means of a large knurled thumbscrew on the reverse.  The reverse also has a sculpted lignum vitae handle and 3 brass “feet” for mounting in it box.  The handle is fitted with a brass receptacle which would have allowed the sextant to be mounted on a stanchion for taking hydrographic sightings.  The sextant is complete in its original hand-dovetailed mahogany box of exceptional size.  It contains 4 sighting tubes, a screw-on eyepiece filer and a unique revolving eyepiece filer with 6 interchangeable settings.  There is also a mirror box adjusting wrench.  In the lid is the Certificate of Examination from the National Physical laboratory indicating “Class A” with matching “No. 4920” dated “1903.”  The box has all brass furniture with two hefty closure hooks, a substantial folding brass handle and a brass label stamped “S NO. 4920.” The sextant measures 11 ½ inches on the large are and the index arc is 10 ¼ inches long.  The box is 12 by 13 inches and 5 ½ inches thick.  This is perhaps the finest instrument of its type we have had the pleasure of offering in our 40 years –  navigational instruments being our specialty. Price Request


* One minute of arc along the equator equals one nautical mile (or 1.151 statute miles).  An arc second, or one sixtieth of a minute, equals 98 feet.  It is unlikely that a navigator could manually take such a precise sighting.  But it is altogether possible that a sighting with margin of error of ¼ mile could be made.

One of the greatest concerns of the nautical instrument makers throughout history has been accuracy.  Because of the severe conditions and weather extremes encountered at sea, a poorly constructed instrument was apt to shrink, expand, warp, or crack rendering a false, potentially fatal reading.  Numerous materials and innovations were tried in an attempt to ensure rigidity and stability of octants and sextants.  To address the problem, perhaps the most famous of these innovations was the pillar frame sextant patented by Edward Troughton in 1788.  The frame was constructed of two parallel strips of sheet brass joined together by machined pillars secured with screws, much like the trusses incorporated in the newly-constructed iron bridges of the time.  This "double frame" sextant was produced by a few top makers using slight modifications for more than one hundred years thereafter.  A variation of the double frame was the "bridge frame" sextant made by Ramsden and a few other makers late in the 18th century. Examples of both forms of these early sextants are quite scarce and highly sought after by collectors.

Provenance.

An item's history is always bears on its relevant value.  In that regard this instrument has a very interesting past.

The Russo-Japanese War, 1904 – 1905, was fought between Imperial Russia and the Empire of Japan over their colonial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.   Russia had long sought a warm water port on the Pacific Ocean.   Since the end of the first Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Japan feared Russian encroachment on its plans to create a sphere of influence in Korea and Manchuria.  Seeing Russia as a rival, Japan offered to recognize Russian dominance in Manchuria in exchange for recognition of its dominance in Korea.  But Russia refused, choosing to go to war after negotiations broke down in 1904.  The Japanese Navy preemptively started the war with a surprise attack on the Russian Fleet in Port Arthur, China.

The war ended in 1905 with Japan’s total victory affirmed by the Treaty of Portsmouth mediated by President Theodore Roosevelt.   The decisive Japanese outcome resulted in a reassessment of Japan's position on the world stage.  It was the first major defeat of a European power by an Asian country.  It is obvious from the dating of this instrument that it was purchased for use in that war.  The original certificate of examination and correction, in Japanese, by the Tamaya company is included.

In 1901, during Japan’s Meiji period (1868 – 1912) the venerable Tamaya Megane-ten optical business was incorporated and renamed Tamaya Shoten.  Tamaya was the first Japanese company to import surveying equipment from abroad and sell it in Japan.  It was also the first company to produce surveying equipment.  By the end of the Meiji era, Tamaya had developed its own transit and level.  During the Taisho era (1912 – 1926), Tamaya began producing surveying equipment made in Japan, relying less on finished products imported from abroad.  It was making levels and theodolites, and by 1922 it made the first Japanese sextant.

Then of equal significance is the fact that this instrument was used in World War II by the Japanese Imperial Navy fighting the United States.  The front of the box bears testament to this fact “From TOKYO, JAPAN +” indicating it was shipped back to the United States as a war prize by veteran Floyd Colvin.


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3.50     EARLIEST COMPASS by the INVENTOR.  A museum piece made just after the Civil War.  Here is an original large ship’s master steering compass by the acknowledged inventor of the practical liquid-filled compass, Edward S. Ritchie.  The compass is stamped on the brass rim “E. S. RITCHIE BOSTON PATENTEE” and is further marked SEPT 9. 1862, APR 7. 1863, APR 10. 1866 and MAY 12. 1868.” This innovative compass is constructed entirely of thick solid brass with a heavy counterweight in the bottom.  The unique compass card consists of two tubes jointed at the center to form an “X” encircled by a painted rim bearing points of the compass.  As such the configuration has affectionately come to be known as a “doughnut compass.”  Markings on the compass card are all hand-painted and are calibrated to ¼ points of the compass with the cardinal and intercardinal points identified.  North is designated by a hand-painted fleur-de-lis and the center float is painted “RITCHIE BOSTON.”  The compass, now devoid of its original alcohol measures 6 ½ inches across the card.  The substantial housing is 8 ¼ inches in diameter and contained within it solid brass gimbal ring 9 ½ inches in diameter, with pivot points extending to 11 inches.  Overall condition is excellent.  The compass still works!  This is without a doubt a world-class offering worthy of the finest museum.  It would be fun to see the elaborate binnacle which housed such a famous compass.  Note also the maker’s name on this compass does not include his Sons, but simply “E. S. RITCHIE and RITCHIE BOSTON” implying it may well have been made earlier than the markings.  975


Edward Samuel Ritchie was born in 1814.  In 1839 he established a hardware business in Boston, Massachusetts with a partner forming the firm of Palmer & Ritchie.  From 1842-1849 he ran a nautical chandlery in New Bedford.  In1850 Ritchie began his scientific instrument making career with Nathan Chamberlain as a partner.  By 1862 the company was known as Edward S. Ritchie & Co. and in 1867 the firm name became E.S. Ritchie & Sons.

Ritchie is credited with inventing the first practical liquid-filled compass circa 1860.
He produced a compass for the famed Civil War iron clad USS MONITOR in 1861 and was awarded his first patent for the invention on  September 9, 1862, at the height of the war.  A number of improvements and subsequent patents followed.  The elder Ritchie died in 1895, but his sons carried on the business, which still survives today as E. S. Ritchie & Sons, Inc. Pembroke, Massachusetts.


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3.47   PATENTED SOUNDING DEVICE.  Rare, 19th century mechanical depth sounder made by ‘Thomas Walker & Son, Birmingham” as embossed on the maker’s label.  This ingenious machine was based on the invention of Edward Massey which superseded the age old method of using a lead line thrown over the side.  When the lead hit bottom it was retrieved and the number of knots spaced at fathoms in the line were counted to determine the depth.   The mechanical sounder provided a much easier and more accurate method using a brass spinner connected to a read-out via a series of gears.  When the log hit the bottom the spinner locked, preserving the recorded depth to be read at the surface.  It is constructed of heavy solid brass.  A 4-finned spinner with worm gear is linked to a porcelain dial calibrated in fathoms from 0 to 30.  A folding “stop” interrupts the spinner when the device hits bottom.  A knurled thumbscrew allows the dial to be reset.  The brass maker’s tag reads “Walker’s “Harpoon II” Depth Finder Made In England by Thos. Walker & Son, Ltd. 58, Oxford St. Birmingham.” with the serial number “S3854.”  It is also stamped with the Walker trademark of an anchor flanked by the letters “T & W.”  This ovoid device is double ended.  The upper portion is lashed to the original served cotton line.  The bottom has an eye to which a lead weight could be attached.  The device measures 6 ¾ inches long by 3 inches wide and the accompanying line is 27 inches long.  Complete in its original wooden box with folding lid measuring 7 ¾ inches long by 3 by 3 ¾ inches.  The sounder itself is in excellent original condition, turning freely and registering properly.  The porcelain dial is perfect.  The wooden box is in fair condition with some delamination, but is sound.  It still retains remnants of 2 paper labels on the exterior.  A very scarce early nautical relic that is functional.  695

Thomas Walker was born in London in 1805.  His mother was the sister of the famous inventor Edward Massey.  Thomas was apprenticed as a clockmaker when in 1836 he moved to Birmingham and opened a clock shop.  Around 1850 he began making logs and sounders under the Massey patent.  In 1861 Thomas took his son, Thomas F., into the business to form Thomas Walker & Son.  The elder Walker died in 1873 and his son continued the business under the name T. Walker.  Thomas F. died in 1921 but the Walker business carried on into the latter half of the 1900’s, perhaps best known for its production of the Cherub and Excelsior taffrail logs.  (M.V. Brewington, “The Peabody Museum Collection of Navigating Instruments,” 1963, Peabody Museum, Salem, Massachusetts).  A similar instrument, catalog item number M3578, plate XLIX 301, is in the museum’s collection.



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3.45  OCTANT.   Genuine 19th century octant frame constructed entirely of rare solid ebony.  This frame is complete with all of its wooden parts and a brass insert at the apex for the pivoting index arm.  The reverse side has a receptacle for a trapezoidal inlay of ivory for the navigator to record his observations.  This type of feature is commensurate with earlier instruments.  The frame measures 11 inches tall and 9 ½ inches wide on the large arc.  Circa 1850 or earlier.   A perfect project for the do it your selfer on a minimal budget.   29



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3.44  CLASS “A” SEXTANT.  Highest quality second half of the 19th century English sextant signed “Wilson & Gillie, Bruce & Sons, Ltd., Cardiff. Barry Dock & Newport.” as engraved on the large arc.  This handsome instrument is all brass with a complicated lattice frame and inlaid silver scales.  The large arc reads from -5 to 155 degrees divided down to 10 arc minutes marked in 10 degree increments.  The silver vernier scale inlaid on the index arm reads from 0 to 10 arc minutes divided down to 10 arc seconds, allowing a comparable reading.  To give an accurate reading a complex pivoting magnifier is provided.   Indicative of the best of these instruments, the index arm has a frosted glass light diffuser set above the vernier.  This fine instrument is complete with both index and horizon mirrors and a full set of index and horizon filters.  The telescope holder affords an adjustable height to accommodate the 3 sighting tubes.  The reverse has a sculpted mahogany handle and 3 brass “feet” for mounting in its box.  The original dove-tailed mahogany box contains the sighting telescopes along with the mirror box adjusting tool, the very rarely found tortoise shell magnifier, and a screw-on sun filter.  What’s more, it retains the original functional skeleton key and lock!  The brass lock is stamped “Two Lever Made In England Secure Hand Made.”   This sextant measures 9 ½ inches long on the index arm and 10 inches wide on the large arc.  The box is 9 ¾ by 11 inches and 5 inches thick.  It has a folding brass handle and 2 hook and eye closures.  As late 1800’s sextant go, this is the best of the best in terms of quality and condition.  Totally complete and original!  895

After inspecting scores of sextants of this vintage and type, it is our professional opinion that this sextant was actually manufactured by the famous Heath & Company, London in the 3rd or very early 4th quarter of the 1800’s.


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3.43   LOG TIMER.   Genuine late 19th century ship’s sand timer as used in the age old method of dead reckoning navigation.  This diminutive device consists of a single hand-blown glass vial with two bulbs constricted at the center.  The vial is filled with visible dark black sand.   It is housed in a sturdy solid brass canister with cut-out windows on both sides.  The two ends are threaded to receive knurled end caps.  Both are boldly stamped “14.”   3 ½ inches long by 1 inch in diameter.  Outstanding original condition showing beautiful brass surfaces and absolutely no damage.  Still accurate after 130+ years! SOLD

The sand timer was used in conjunction with a chip log to determine the ship’s speed over an interval of time for the purposes of dead reckoning navigation.

The first printed reference to a chip log was recorded in 1574 with William Bourne’s, "A Regiment for the Sea."  The log was a triangular wooden device attached to a “log-line” which was thrown off the bow of the ship.  Its travel was timed as it passed down the ship’s side.  Bourne devised a half-minute sand glass for timing.  In that era, a mile was determined to be the equivalent of 5,000 feet.  At a speed of one mile per hour a ship would travel about 42 feet in 30 seconds:
          Distance in ft = 1 mile / hour (3,600 seconds) = 30 sec. x 5000 ft/ 3600 sec = 42 ft
In the early days of navigation the length of the log-line was measured directly by sailors as it passed through their hands.  With the introduction of the nautical mile (6,000 feet) as a standard unit of measure at sea in the late 16th century, sailors began to mark the line in equal segments of a nautical mile relative to the time of travel of the log.  At first the markings were simply knots in the log-line.  Later, sailors inserted identifying markers into the knots.  Most ships used knots spaced 7 fathoms (42 feet) apart.  The resulting time interval directly related to the distance between knots in the line.  Using 6,000 feet (2,000 yards) for 1 nautical mile, the above formula yields 28 seconds for a distance of 7 fathoms.

With the advent of steam navigation and much faster vessels, the time required to measure the chip log’s travel was shortened.  Accordingly, 14 second timers were introduced in the second half of the 19th century.  The use of 14 second timers was still being used as a back-up navigational method well into the early 20th century.

The exact origins of sand timers are unclear, although they are generally attributed to the Arab world.  From ancient times the passage of water was used as a measurement of time in "water clocks."  As a follow-on, the "fluid dynamics" of flowing sand was seen to be similar. "By the Middle Ages the sand-glass came into its own and, fragile though it was, this was the first clock which the men who made the great voyages of discovery took with them."  (Jean Randier, "Nautical Antiques for the Collector, 1977, Doubleday & Co., New York, page 96).



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3.42    NAVIGATOR’s RULES.   A very nice example of late 19th century rolling parallel rules made by the well-known English maker “J.A. Nicholl & Co.” as impressed in the top of the rule.  This substantial, highly accurate navigational instrument is made of brass with a boxwood body.  It consists of a heavy brass axel connected to knurled rollers on each end.  These move freely allowing the rules to run over the face of a chart parallel to the course line.  To assist the navigator in plotting, knurled brass knobs are provided on each end of the rules.  This precision device is housed in its high quality mahogany box with machine dovetailing and interior felt supports.  Two brass hook and eye closures insure the contents are secure.  The rules measure 18 inches long by 2 ½ inches wide.  Unlike trapezoidal parallel rulers, the extent of this ruler’s travel is endless.  The box measures 19 inches long by 3 ¼ inches wide and 1 7/8 inches thick.  Outstanding original condition in all respects.  249

J. A. Nicholl worked from 1848-1901+.  In 1865 his address was 42 Stanhope Street, London and from 1885 onward it was 153 High Holborn, London WC.  He was known to have made and sold protractors.  (Gloria Clifton, “Dictionary of British Scientific Instrument Makers 1550-1851,”



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3.41   AMERICAN OCTANT.  Extra nice second half of the 19th century brass octant by one of  America’s most noted makers, “John Bliss & Co., New York” as engraved on the large arc.  This quality instrument has an inlaid silver scale divided in degrees from -5 to 120 subdivided to 15 arc minutes.  The silver vernier scale inlaid in the index arm is calibrated from 0 to 15 minutes providing a reading to an accuracy of 15 arc seconds.  The braced cast bronze frame is in its original blackened finish.  It supports the pivoting index arm 9 ¾ inches in length.  The large arc is 8 ½ inches wide.  The arm has knurled index stop and a knurled tangent fine adjust knob.  To aid in taking a reading the arm is equipped with a pivoting vernier magnifier.  This fine instrument is complete with both index and horizon mirrors, full set of index (4) and horizon (3) filters.  It is equipped with a fixed telescope mount which accommodates either of the 2 sighting scopes – one peep and one telescopic.  The back of the instrument retains its original early style sculpted mahogany handle and three mounting “feet.”   It is totally complete with screw-on sun filter and mirror adjustment tool.  The entire presentation is in an outstanding and original state of original preservation.  The blackened finish is excellent throughout.  The brass surfaces are clean and bright.  This octant is housed in its original hand-dovetailed mahogany box with brass furniture 11 by 9 ½ inches and 5 inches thick.  Complete with box lock, folding bail handle and closure hooks.  Overall condition is truly exceptional.  There are the typical age cracks in the solid wood panels of the box, expected of wood over 130 years old.  But it is sound and very handsome in its original finish.  A great find priced to sell.  585

John Bliss was first listed in the New York directories with his partner Frederick Creighton as watch makers at 42 Fulton Street, New York.  In 1843 they advertised “American Chronometers equal to English.”  In 1845 they moved to 26 Burlington Slip and the firm name became John Bliss & Co.  In 1869 the company moved to 66 South Street.  In 1872 Bliss purchased the entire stock of the venerable Blunt & Co.  In addition to chronometers, Bliss manufactured other nautical instrument including a taffrail log which they patented in 1864.  The Bliss firm continued well into the 1900’s supplying nautical instruments and charts to mariners. (M.V. Brewington, “The Peabody Museum Collection of Navigating Instruments,” 1963, Peabody Museum, Salem, Massachusetts.)



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3.38   RARE SURVEYING SEXTANT.  Most important, very high quality marine navigational sextant which also served as an astronomical and hydrographic survey instrument.  This magnificent all brass precision instrument is signed on the large arc “Cary, London 2842 Gold & Platina.”  The large arc is calibrated in single degrees from -5 to 150 degrees divided by 10 arc minutes, effectively making it a quintant.  The scale is beautifully engraved on solid gold overridden by a platinum vernier scale.  The division of the vernier from 0 -10 allows for a reading to an accuracy of 10 arc seconds.  Interestingly the sheet brass frame is very similar to the one invented by Edward Troughton in the 1780’s, in that it is secured to a second frame by screws for rigidity and accuracy. This amazing instrument has many unusual cutting edge features.  The index arm stop and the fine adjust tangent screw are spring loaded, allowing a much smoother reading.  To take the reading there is a small adjustable magnifier built into the index arm, as well as a small frosted glass window mounted just above the magnifier to provide maximum lighting for the reading.  Above the magnifier, mounted to the index arm, is a bubble level which can be locked into place or allowed to swing free indicating the plane of the earth, also known as an artificial horizon.  This sextant is equipped with its full set of 4 colored glass index filers and 3 horizon filters for viewing in different atmospheric conditions.  Both the index and horizon mirrors are in place and functional.  Attesting to Cary’s attention to minute detail, both are equipped with pin-adjusted screws which are covered by threaded knurled caps!  This sextant has an adjustable height eyepiece operated  by a knurled knob on the reverse.  The eyepiece supports a long telescopic sighting tube which fits nicely into the holder with a bayonet twist.  The back side of the sextant frame has 3 brass “feet” and a rosewood handle reinforced with brass.  But there its commonality with other fine sextants is surpassed.  It is mounted, through its handle to an exceptionally heavy and well-machined tripodal stand.  The stand is signed “G. LEE & SON, THE HARD, PORTSMOUTH.”  It is equipped with 3 knurled leveling screws on a folding base mounted with a support much like a library telescope.  At the top is a revolving platform with a tangent locking screw and fine adjust stop.  These are for precisely orientating the instrument to the heavens.  The tilt of the sextant fore and aft is accomplished by 2 pivoting levers attached to the stand.  Each is attached to a brass-encased lead counterweight.   The action is flawless!  The sextant itself measures 10 ¾ inches wide on the large arc and 10 ½ inches on the index arm.  It stands 18 inches high and 10 ¼ inches wide on the base.  Circa 1820.  Absolutely outstanding condition.   As rare as it gets.  Museum quality.  Price Request

The Cary name was highly revered in the late 18th and early 19th century scientific community in England.  William Cary began business as an optician and nautical instrument maker on the Strand, London in 1789.  He partnered with John Cary (I) in 1791.  John Cary (II) was William’s nephew who partnered with George Cary to form the famous globe making firm. William died in 1825.

George Lee was a maker in the early 19th century who enjoyed a Royal appointment as maker to the Crown.



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3.37  IMPRESSIVE INCLINOMETER.  Very finest quality ship’s pilothouse gauge used to measure the ship’s heel (roll) when underway and its trim when in port.  This precision instrument has an enamel dial marked in individual degrees PORT and STBD. from 0 to 50.  The first 20 degrees are further calibrated in ½ degree increments.  The measurement is indicated by a black spade hand connected to internal gearing and a heavy brass weight.  The dial is marked “HEEL” and “DEGREES,” then is signed “KELVIN & HUGHES LTD. Made In Great Britain” at the bottom.  The dial is protected by thick beveled glass set into a heavy cast brass bezel.  The bezel is fitted to a thick sold brass case with 3 mounting feet and a knurled locking knob at the bottom for disenabling the mechanism when not in use.  This fine navigational instrument measures 9 inches in diameter an 2 3/8 inches deep.   It is mounted to a rich hardwood backboard 12 inches in diameter.  The backboard has one of our unique hanging brackets which provides secure suspension while allowing movement of the mechanism.  Lovely, fully restored cosmetic condition in a bright brass finish.  695



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3.30  MINIATURE SEXTANT.   Truly extraordinary, if not completely unique, 2nd quarter 1800’s midshipman’s sextant (aka lifeboat sextant) made by the highly revered early English maker William Cary as beautifully hand-engraved on the large silver arc “Cary, London 968.”   This amazing instrument is actually a semi circumferentor having a scale divided to a full 180 degrees of arc, sub-divided to 20 arc minutes!   This was a spectacular feat of precision engineering at the time, attesting to Cary’s genius.  It was not attempted by any of his contemporaries even on larger more easily calibrated instruments.  This pristine all brass instrument is in its original blackened finish. The tangent fine adjust knob works in consort with the knurled index arm stop. The large scale is overridden by the index arm vernier scale calibrated to provide a reading down to an accuracy of an amazing 20 arc seconds!  This was virtually unheard of for an instrument of its size at the time.  It is a cutting age accomplishment literally akin to the moon exploration more than 125 years later!   The index arm is equipped with an adjustable magnifier to view the reading.  This compact navigational instrument has both index and horizon mirrors and a height adjustable sight holder which accommodates 3 telescopes housed in its box.   Incredibly, 2 index filters and 2 horizon filers are also provided.  On the reverse it has a sculpted solid ebony handle and 3 positioning “feet.”   This diminutive instrument measures  a mere 5 ¼ inches wide on the broad arc and 4 ½ inches long on the index arm.  It is housed in its original rich African mahogany box with very fine hand-dove tailed construction measuring 5 ½ inches square by 3 ¼ inches thick.  It is complete with all three sighting tubes and 2 eye piece filters.  Incredibly the box lock is complete with its original skeleton key!  Within the lid are two original labels.  The first is by “HENRY PORTER Successor to the Late W. CARY.”  The second is a hand-inked label dated 1888 indicating the correction of the index error in June 1888.  This extraordinary presentation is worthy of the finest world class museum.  In fact it must ultimately go to a museum as the trail of its past dictates.  We are all caretakers of our prized possessions, but not owners in perpetuity.  3900

William Cary was a patriarch of the family of instrument makers in England which brought that country to world prominence in the early 1800’s.  Born in 1759, Cary apprenticed to the premier 18th century instrument maker, Jesse Ramsden.  Cary began his own practice in 1789 at 277 The Strand, London.  In 1821 he moved to 181 The Strand where the business flourished thereafter.  In partnership with his brother John, William produced some of the finest and most highly sought after antique globes sold today.  The signature J & W Cary is a mark of excellence in the current marketplace.  William Cary died in 1825.  But his apprentice Henry Porter carried on the firm in his master’s name.  Owing to the quality and execution of the finest details of this superior instrument, it is our opinion that this sextant is indeed by the hand of the master, William Cary, as signed “Cary, London.”  Inasmuch as Porter’s trade label in the lid states “Apprentice and Successor to the Late W. Cary,” surely this instrument dates very close to or prior to Cary’s demise.

Such miniature sextants were popular as functional but very expensive novelties during the second quarter of the 19th C.  Many were awarded as prizes for superior performance by their recipients in navigational academies of the time.  Other well known makers such as Troughton & Simms produced a nominal amount of such quality instruments at the time.  (See item 3.92) 



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3.18  AZIMUTH INSTRUMENT.  Genuine, highest quality ship’s navigational instrument made by the esteemed American makers, “NEGUS NEW YORK” as stamped on the bed plate and again on the maker’s tag on the box.  This precision instrument is all brass with a blackened finish.  It has an optical quality glass prism which rotates via two knurled brass knobs.  Designed to be set atop the ship’s main steering compass in a binnacle, it has a magnifier set in a tube below the prism to enhance the current compass reading while at the same time providing an image of the sun or celestial body.  Two pivoting sun shades are provided for looking at the former.  A removable “line-of-sight” pole is provided, as is a bubble level for assuring totally accurate level readings.  This instrument fits the top of a standard size 8 inch Navy magnetic compass.  It measures 9 ¼ inches long by 3 3/8 inches wide and 8 ¾ inches high with the removable vertical post.  Absolutely mint, untouched, original factory condition in its original dove-tailed wooden box with brass hardware measuring 10 1/4 by 7 ½ inches by 5 ½ inches thick. 199

Primarily used to determine LAN (Local Apparent Noon) the azimuth instrument is an effective tool for determining the ship’s latitude by measuring the sun’s altitude at the exact time of meridian passage.

The Negus firm first appeared in the New York City directories at 84 Wall Street in 1850.  Thomas Stewart was trained as a chronometer maker in England and began working with his brother, John David in 1848, first under the name of Thos. S. Negus & Co.   During the Civil War the firm moved to 100 Wall Street and the name changed to T.S. & J.D. Negus.  The business of chronometer and navigational instrument making continued to grow, causing them to move to 69 Pearl Street in 1875.   From the Civil War onward, Negus enjoyed the patronage of the U.S. Navy as the suppliers of chronometers and other navigational equipment.   By the early 1900’s T.S. & J.D. Negus had established themselves as the leading nautical instrument makers and chandler in the United States.  In 1962 the firm was purchased by Max Low & Co.  Low found success in providing the government with navigational instruments, clocks and deck watches during World War II.  Max Low’s son, Charles, continued the business in New York through the 1980’s when the firm was finally dissolved.



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3.17  EARLY BOXED COMPASS.  Rare, first quarter of the 19th century American boxed compass with the card signed around the center pivot “R. L. SHAW 22 WATER St NEW YORK.”  This highest quality dry card compass has an engraved paper card overlaying mica.  The central brass pivot has an agate bearing.  Indicative of its early origins the card is only marked in points, not degrees.  The cardinal and intercardinal points are identified down to the remaining individual points.  32 in all.  North is denoted by an elaborate Fleur-de-lis.  It is housed in its weighted brass bowl with old wavy glass cover slung in gimbals.  The gimbal ring has two extended pivots which fit into brass V brackets mounted in the box.  As such, the compass is easily removed for cleaning and inspection.  The solid oak box is of exceptional quality, being of stout hand-dovetailed construction with it original chamfered sliding lid.   When the lid is inserted it effectively locks the compass in place.  The compass itself measures 5 inches in diameter.  The box is 7 ¼ inches square and 5 ½ inches high.  The compass is very lively and accurate, gimbaling properly within its box.  Overall condition is excellent.  There is some minor age toning on the card in the southern quadrant which in no way affects its quality or appeal.  This is yet another exceptional museum-quality marine antique offered by this longstanding company, about 200 years old!  SOLD

Robert Shaw was a respected nautical instrument maker and ship chandler in New York City in the early 1800’s.  We have sold examples of navigational octants with his signature.



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3.16/19.87 YACHT TAFFRAIL LOG. An amazing find! Late 19th century American patent log for small vessels made by the venerable nautical firm of Negus, New York. What is particularly remarkable about this set is its mint, UNUSED condition in the original box with instructions! The lovely instrument has a porcelain dial within its glazed brass housing. The dial is signed“ NEGUS PATENT LOG” and is calibrated on the periphery from 0 – 50 miles in one mile increments, marked by 5’s. The subsidiary dial at the bottom indicates tenths of miles. The log itself is equipped with a large brass bail handle and terminates in a free wheeling governor to which the log line and lead are attached. The “fish” (rotator) is solid brass and is marked “NEGUS M.” It is attached to approximately 10 fathoms of original cotton line. All of this is contained within the original cardboard box with interior “Directions” in the lid and outer decorative label reading “NEGUS PATENT LOG.” It is complete with its rarely-found separate instruction sheet entitled “HOW TO USE.” The box measures 10 inches long by 3 5/8 inches wide and 3 ¾ inches high. Condition of the contents is superb – factory new. The box shows signs of normal wear expected of an object over 100 years old. 595



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3.14/5.46  U.S. NAVY CLINOMETER.  Authentic World War II fighting ship’s pilot house inclinometer made for the Navy by the John L. Chaney Instrument Company.  The face of the Bakelite body is engraved:

CLINOMETER
U.S. NAVY BU-SHIPS
MK IV
1943
JOHN L. CHANEY INSTR. CO.
LAKE GENEVA WISC., U.S.A.


This precision device is calibrated in single degrees of heel port and starboard up to 70 marked by 10’s.  The reading is made by a small black ball within a curved glass tube containing fluid.  The fluid acts to dampen (slow) the ball as the ship rolls.  This is exactly the same principle used in an aircraft’s turn and bank indicator.  The instrument measures 12 ½ inches wide by 6 ¼ inches high.  It is in excellent original condition, even showing the desirable “real world” remnants of old red and green paint applied by a zealous sailor!  The action of the ball is perfect.  395 



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3.13   DOUBLE FRAME SEXTANT.   A very rare 19th century Class "A" English sextant by the esteemed makers, “Heath & Co. Ltd. Crayford, London” as prominently hand-engraved on the bottom of the scale.  This exceptional all brass navigational instrument is absolutely of the highest quality ever made.  It features a large arc with inlaid silver scale divided in degrees from -5 to an amazing 160, subdivided to 10 arc minutes, effectively making it a quintant.  The accompanying silver vernier scale on the index arm is divided from 0 – 10 enabling a reading down to 10 arc seconds!  Incredibly, in the days long before GPS, this allowed the navigator to determine his position within 10 miles of accuracy.  It is facilitated by the knurled index arm stop and the tangential fine adjust knob.  This was an important innovation at the time.  Of special note, this double frame sextant, also known as a “bridge” or “pillar frame: was invented Edward Troughton in the 1780’s.  Troughton’s idea was to make a sturdy, lightweight instrument which provided ultimate accuracy.  In this, he was very successful.  But its complexity and cost of manufacture prevented all but the wealthiest ship owners and captains to purchase such an instrument.  As such, very few were ever produced.  This rare example has a brass “T” frame in its orignal darkened finish with numerous circular screws securing the pillars front and back.  Both the index and horizon mirrors are in place as are the full compliment of 4 index filter and 3 horizon filters.  The index arm is equipped with a pivoting magnifier of exquisite quality – a signature feature of Heath’s splendid output.  This instrument has a height adjustable telescope holder.  On the back, the sculpted mahogany handle has an inset brass sleeve indicating this instrument could have been mounted on a support stand for hydrographic survey use.  It is complete in its very beautiful solid mahogany box of hand-dove-tailed construction.  It contains both optical telescopes and one peep tube, along with the two screw-on eyepiece sun filters and rarely-found folding tortoise shell magnifier together with box lock key.  The outside of the box bears the ivory plaque engraved “NAVAL SEXTANT 7 INCH PILLAR No. 18.”  This indicates Royal Navy use.  Below the plaque is an inset folding brass handle for carrying.  Inside the lid is the last certificate of inspection from the National Physical Laboratory, Kew Observatory dated 1911.  Fabulous original condition in all respects and totally complete.  It measures 9 ¼ inches long on the index arm and 10 ¾ inches wide on the arc.  The box is 10 by 10 ¾ inches and 5 3/8 inches thick.  Without question, this instrument is worthy of any world class collection. Circa 1880.   2785



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3.03 EARLY AMERICAN NAUTICAL COMPASS. Quite unusual maritime compass of especially small size produced by the short-lived American scientific and nautical instrument making firm of “FRYE & SHAW * NEW YORK*” as hand-engraved around the pivot of the compass card. This functional ship’s compass has a paper over mica drycard compass rose marked in single points of the compass with the cardinal and sub-cardinal pointes identified. North is designated by a classic fleur-de-lis. The brass pivot is of conical form reminiscent of compasses dating back to the 17th century! Also in keeping with tradition, the East point is embellished with yet another fleur-de-lis. The card is housed in its weighted brass bowl slung in gimbals mounted in its heavy brass cylindrical housing complete with the original press-fit knurled brass lid. The compass is very lively, accurate, and gimbals properly. The presentation measures 3 5/8 inches in diameter and 2 inches thick with the lid. Condition is absolutely outstanding and original, in all respects. Totally original. This is a sweetheart of an offering, worthy of any museum. Not particularly cheap, but worth every penny. Find another! 888

Adington D. Frye and Robert Ludlow Shaw formed a partnership which was listed in the New York City Directories as mathematical instrument makers at 222 Water Street in 1837 and 1838. The New York State Directory lists the firm in operation from 1840-1845. (Charles E. Smart, “The Makers of Surveying Instruments in America Since 1700,” 1962, Regal Art Press, Troy, NY).

The decorated east point on the compass rose found its beginnings in the early Crusades as warriors battled their way East in search of the Cross. Early compasses were embellished with a cross on the east point reminding Crusaders of their goal. As time went on the cross gave way to a more secular embellishment, but the tradition of a “decorated” east point continued for centuries, finally falling out of favor with compass makers in the early 1800’s.



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3.99 ANTIQUE HAND-HELD COMPASS. Very nice mid-19th century drycard compass made for the English speaking market. This diminutive all brass compass has an engraved paper card marked down to the single points of the compass with the cardinal and intercardinal points identified. North is denoted by a very fancy fleur-de-lis. The periphery is calibrated in single degree quadrants marked by 10’s, 0 through 90. At its center the card has a high quality brass pivot with inset agate bearing. It is housed under original old way glass within its all brass case with press-fit cover. The lid is engraved in script “DLS.” This compass is exactly 3 inches in diameter and 1 1/8 inches thick. Excellent old condition. The old magnetic compass bar is tired. But eventually it settles out to show North. A great old display piece. 229


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3.97 NAVIGATOR’s PARALLEL RULES.   A large and important set of ship’s navigators chart rulers from the early part of the 1900’s.   This impressive set made of Bakelite with brass fittings measures 24 inches long by 3 1/4 inches wide, making it one of the biggest ever made!  It is signed “H. HUGHES & SON LTD” on the left end and “MADE IN GREAT BRITAIN” on the right.  Of special interest, due to its size, it has 3, not the typical 2 brass connecting arms.  Following the invention of Capt. Fields, it is marked as a protractor with 90 and 270 at the center, radiating to 360 on the left and 180 on the right end.   The lower limb is marked with “NESW, S and SENW” respectively.   The action is tight and precise.  Very handsome original condition.  The rich brown tone of the Bakelite nicely enhances the yellow gold of the brass.  A rare signed example which charted the way for many a successful voyage! 295



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3.92  RARE HISTORIC MINIATURE SEXTANT.   Truly extraordinary, mid-1800s presentation sextant made by one of England’s most elite makers!  This delightful little instrument is signed on the large arc in perfect hand-engraved script, Troughton & Simms, London.”  Of all brass construction with a V-shaped frame, the sextant has an inlaid silver arc reading from -5 to 160 degrees, effectively making it a quintant.  Incredibly, these divisions along with the vernier scale on the index arm, allow this sextant to match the accuracy of it larger cousins, down to 20 arc seconds!  A pivoting magnifier is provided for taking the reading.  The index arm has a miniaturized version of a thumb screw stop and tangential fine adjust.  The sextant is complete with its 2 horizon filters and 2 index filters in perfect condition.  The index mirror and horizon mirror are in beautiful condition.  The whole presentation is totally complete in its shaped rich mahogany box.  The octagonal ebony handle screws into the frame with a secure fit.  There are two optics, a peep and a telescope which fit into the height-adjustable sight holder.  Rounding out the accessories, there are both sight tube filters, mirror adjustment tool, and the functional skeleton key for the brass lock.  Of monumental importance for its value and appeal is the beautifully-hand-engraved  presentation on sterling silver inlaid into the top of the box.  It reads, Presented at the Public Examination on the 13th of June 1851 to Gentleman Cadet, Henry Goodwyn by the Honble Court of Directors of the East India Company, as a mark of the Courts approbation of his attainments in Mathematics while at the Military Seminary.”  The overall presentation is nothing short of phenomenal for an instrument 166 years old!  Totally complete and virtually in the same condition when it was made.   All surfaces are in their original bright brass lacquer finish.  This is a nautical gem of the highest order, if ever there was one!  Most certainly worthy of the finest world class collection and/or museum.  5350

The East India Company, also known as the Honourable East India Company or the British East India Company was formed to pursue trade with the "East Indies" (present-day Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and controling the Indian subcontinent.

Originally chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the Company accounted for half of the world's trade  in basic commodities such as cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpeter (for gun powder), tea, and opium. The Company was also instrumental in the founding of the British Empire in India.

The Company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, making it the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies. Wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the Company's shares, but the government owned no shares and had only indirect control.

During its first century of its operation, the Company's focus was on trade, not the building an empire in India. But early in the 18th century when the Mughal Empire began to decline, Company interests turned from trade to territory as the East India Company competed with its counterpart, the French East India Company.
By 1803, at the height of its rule in India, the Company had a private army of about 260,000, twice the size of the British Army! The Company eventually came to rule large areas of India with its private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions.  Company rule in India effectively began in 1757 and lasted until 1858. But following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the resulting Government of India Act 1858 led the British Crown to assume direct control of the Indian subcontinent in the form of the new British Raj.

Despite frequent governmental intervention, the Company's on-going financial problems finally led to its dissolution in 1874.



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3.48  INCLINOMETER.   Most unusual early 1900’s ship’s pilothouse inclinometer marked, “STRUMENTI NAUTICAL E. CHANZ, TRIESESTE,” engraved on the pendulum bob.  This Italian-made ship’s instrument is unique in our experience, having a glazed brass body mounted to a sculpted hardwood backboard.   As configured it is exceptional in that it is both functional and beautiful.  It has a jet black background engraved with degrees of list in single degree increments from 0 to 51 port and starboard, marked by 10’s.  The heavy, solid brass pendulum bob has a center line engraved on the tip of the pointer to precisely indicate the heel or list within a half degree of accuracy!   The pivot at the apex is steel secured within a blackened brass fitting.   It provides a very smooth, uninterrupted action.   The instrument is housed in its sheet brass enclosure with triangular glass window, all of which is mounted to the one piece hardwood backboard in natural finish.  In use this inclinometer was hung on the athwartships bulkhead in the pilot house in a prominent place.  Insuring its secure attachment are three thick brass tabs.   The one at the top is fixed, whereas the two at the bottom are slotted, cleverly allowing the instrument to be “trued up” if necessary.  11 inches tall by 12 ¾ inches wide overall.  2 ¼ inches thick.  Excellent, fully restored condition.  695 Special PackagingBack to Top

The quaint seaport town of Trieste is located on the extreme northeastern border of Italy, at the head of the Gulf of Trieste on the Adriatic Sea.  Throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of the Latin, Slavic and Germanic cultures.  Trieste was one of the oldest cities in the Habsburg Empire and in the 19th century it was the most important port of that member of the “Great Powers.”  As a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (after Vienna, Budapest and Prague).  It underwent an economic revival during the 1930s and played a key role in the struggle between the Eastern and Western blocs after World War II.  Today Trieste is one of Italy’s richest regions, serving as a center for shipping, shipbuilding and finance.



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