West Sea Company

3. Nautical Instruments

Prices in U.S. Dollars are in GREEN

 



3.93   BARGAIN SEXTANT.   Authentic mid-19th century navigational sextant of very high quality, housed in its original hand-dovetailed box with all accessories.  This fine, class "A" navigational instrument is made of solid brass with inlaid silver scales.  The large arc is graduated from -5 degrees to 154 degrees effectively making it a "quintant."  The silver vernier scale allows a reading down to a precise 15 arc seconds!  A vernier magnifier is provided for taking the reading.  This sextant is complete with both index and horizon mirrors, and full sets of 4 index and 3 horizon filters.  The sculpted handle on the back is solid ebony.  The large arc is engraved "STANLEY LONDON" the famous English instrument makers at the turn-of-the-last-century.  However, close scrutiny of the signature reveals the remnants of a much earlier hand-engraved signature made by the original London maker.  Our research indicates it may well be  "Cary of London."  This high quality instrument fits in its original rich mahogany box containing a peep sight and small telescope.  The hinged lid closes on two brass hooks for securing and a folding brass handle for carrying.  The original lock is away and there is one age crack in the bottom of the box.  Overall condition is excellent.  The sextant is clean and totally functional, as are its components.  It measures 9 ¼ inches high by 10 inches wide.  The box measures 10 1/4 by 10 3/4 by 5 inches thick and is very sound.  Was 975 NOW! 595



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3.94 IMPORTANT SEXTANT.   Second quarter 1800’s navigational instrument made by one of England’s most respected firms of the era, “Troughton & Simms, London” as hand-engraved on the large arc.   This complex “pillar frame” sextant is of the highest quality ever made.  The amazing inlaid sterling silver scale is calibrated from -5 to 155 degrees subdivided by 10 arc minute increments, effectively making it a “quintant.”  Above the maker’s name on the arc is the engraved word indicating “Silver.”  The matching vernier scale in the index arm allows for a reading down to an accuracy of 6 arc seconds!   The reading is set by the index arm stop and tangential fine adjust knobs.  A pivoting magnifier with built-in light diffuser aids in taking the reading.  This instrument is actually 2 sextants in one, having a “double frame” consisting of two sheets of thick brass held together by numerous posts or “pillars,” hence the name.  The index arm is braced for additional support.  This instrument is complete with both index and horizon mirrors and its full set of 4 index and 3 horizon filters.  The height-adjustable sight holder is controlled by a large knurled knob on the reverse.  Also on reverse is the lovely sculpted rosewood handle for holding and 3 brass “feet” for support in the box.  The box itself is noteworthy, being the early keystone type made of rich mahogany with hand-dovetailed construction.  It is complete with brass hinges, functional skeleton lock with key and hook and eye closures.  Remarkably, it is complete with all accessories, including long and short telescopes, cross hair scope, both eyepiece filters and mirror box adjusting tool.  The instrument measures 10 inches high by 11 ½ inches wide.  The box is 11 inches high, 14 inches wide and 5 ¼ inches thick.  Excellent original condition throughout.  The instrument itself is unmodified, fully functional and exhibits traces of the original orange lacquer finish.  The box is in remarkably fine original condition, extremely sound, with no cracks or losses so common in wooden objects of this vintage.   Approximately 170 years old.  No finer sextant was ever made!   We are pleased to  be able to offer it here.  Price Request

Edward Troughton introduced his innovative pillar frame design in 1788.  Functioning much like the trusses of a bridge, it provided rigidity for greater accuracy and lighter weight for ease of use.  The design was immediately embraced by mariners and Troughton’s contemporaries at the time when such instruments were transitioning from wood to brass.  Brass had evolved as the material of choice because of its stability in a marine environment.  Troughton’s design was copied by a number of nautical instrument makers in the early 1800’s.  However its complexity and high cost finally led to its extinction by the middle of the century.

Provenence:   Inlaid into the lid of the box is a brass plate engraved “LIEUT. J. R. LE HUNT WARD RN.”  Some in depth research certainly could reveal much more interesting history.  The British Naval Registry documents the service of the officers in HM Navy.



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3.92  RARE HISTORIC MINIATURE SEXTANT.   Truly extraordinary, mid-1800s presentation sextant made by one of England’s most elite makers!  This delightful little instrument is signed on the large arc in perfect hand-engraved script, Troughton & Simms, London.”  Of all brass construction with a V-shaped frame, the sextant has an inlaid silver arc reading from -5 to 160 degrees, effectively making it a quintant.  Incredibly, these divisions along with the vernier scale on the index arm, allow this sextant to match the accuracy of it larger cousins, down to 20 arc seconds!  A pivoting magnifier is provided for taking the reading.  The index arm has a miniaturized version of a thumb screw stop and tangential fine adjust.  The sextant is complete with its 2 horizon filters and 2 index filters in perfect condition.  The index mirror and horizon mirror are in beautiful condition.  The whole presentation is totally complete in its shaped rich mahogany box.  The octagonal ebony handle screws into the frame with a secure fit.  There are two optics, a peep and a telescope which fit into the height-adjustable sight holder.  Rounding out the accessories, there are both sight tube filters, mirror adjustment tool, and the functional skeleton key for the brass lock.  Of monumental importance for its value and appeal is the beautifully-hand-engraved  presentation on sterling silver inlaid into the top of the box.  It reads, Presented at the Public Examination on the 13th of June 1851 to Gentleman Cadet, Henry Goodwyn by the Honble Court of Directors of the East India Company, as a mark of the Courts approbation of his attainments in Mathematics while at the Military Seminary.”  The overall presentation is nothing short of phenomenal for an instrument 166 years old!  Totally complete and virtually in the same condition when it was made.   All surfaces are in their original bright brass lacquer finish.  This is a nautical gem of the highest order, if ever there was one!  Most certainly worthy of the finest world class collection and/or museum.  5350

The East India Company, also known as the Honourable East India Company or the British East India Company was formed to pursue trade with the "East Indies" (present-day Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and controling the Indian subcontinent.

Originally chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the Company accounted for half of the world's trade  in basic commodities such as cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpeter (for gun powder), tea, and opium. The Company was also instrumental in the founding of the British Empire in India.

The Company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, making it the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies. Wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the Company's shares, but the government owned no shares and had only indirect control.

During its first century of its operation, the Company's focus was on trade, not the building an empire in India. But early in the 18th century when the Mughal Empire began to decline, Company interests turned from trade to territory as the East India Company competed with its counterpart, the French East India Company.
By 1803, at the height of its rule in India, the Company had a private army of about 260,000, twice the size of the British Army! The Company eventually came to rule large areas of India with its private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions.  Company rule in India effectively began in 1757 and lasted until 1858. But following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the resulting Government of India Act 1858 led the British Crown to assume direct control of the Indian subcontinent in the form of the new British Raj.

Despite frequent governmental intervention, the Company's on-going financial problems finally led to its dissolution in 1874.



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3.91/10.41  BRITISH SUBMARINE BINNACLE.    Quote, “Stunningly beautiful and extremely rare,” World War II era Royal Navy binnacle.  This classic heavy duty marine navigation device is constructed of solid teak and brass.  At its heart is the diminutive yet amazingly precise liquid-filled magnetic compass.  It is marked with the cardinal and intercardinal points of the compass rose, with north designated by the traditional fleur-de-lis surmounting a crown.  The periphery of the card is calibrated in single degrees forming 90 degree quadrants marked by tens with two sets of numbers -- one upright for direct reading, the other backwards for viewing through a prism or reflecting sight.  The brass rim of the compass is marked, “PATT.1881 No 2207.H.S.” and is suspended in its heavy bronze gimbal stamped “5Y0.”  This binnacle has 2 compartments.  The upper compartment houses the compass.  Just below it is an adjustable mechanical dimmer operated by a knurled knob on the front connected to a worm gear operating two shutters within.  The lower compartment contains the “healing bucket” or magnet compartment for adjusting the compass and is made of thick, solid teak, while the upper compartment is heavy rolled brass.  Mounted to it are the two “quadrantial correctors” (compensating balls) on stout bronze arms.  The front and back have brass degaussing coils.  The binnacle itself bears the plaque reading “PATT. 189N No 2902K.”  The wooden body has 2 round brass fittings.  The upper is a connection for electrical wire (present) while the lower holds the connection cover when not in use.  The top of the binnacle has a rounded brass hood with a stout handle and two glazed ports, each with folding covers.  There are several other unique features too numerous to describe here.  Seeing is believing!  This binnacle stands 18 ½ inches tall overall and is 8 ½ inches in diameter at the base.  It is 16 ½ inches wide on the arms, and weighs 29 pounds.  Excellent condition.  The compass is functional and very accurate.  3250 Special PackagingBack to Top

A newer, less substantial version of this binnacle was offered a few years ago by the military surplus catalog dealer “Deutsche Optik” for $6,559.   Our better, older example is half price (See the opening quote above).



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3.90   EARLY AMERICAN TAFFRAIL LOG SET.   This is truly rare!  A complete cased yacht taffrail log unit in its original box with descriptive cover and label.  This diminutive navigational instrument from the 1800’s is signed on the register’s porcelain dial, “NEGUS PATENT LOG.”  The outer dial is calibrated in nautical miles from 0 - 50, with a subsidiary dial marked in tenths.  It is complete with its brass rotator (“fish”) marked “K 28 NEGUS.”  The original sturdy cardboard box has a decorative label on the outside reading “NEGUS PATENT LOG. For Small Vessels,” and an interior directions label in the lid.  Totally complete.  Excellent overall original condition and fully functional.   The box measures 10 ¼ by7 4 ¼ by 4 ¼ inches.  595

Those familiar with TV’s “Antiques Road Show” understand that an original box can often be worth more than its contents!  In this case an original box is rare, particularly since it has survived in a harsh marine environment.

The Negus firm first appeared in the New York City directories at 84 Wall Street in 1850.  Thomas Stewart was trained as a chronometer maker in England and began working with his brother, John David in 1848, first under the name of Thos. S. Negus & Co.   During the Civil War the firm moved to 100 Wall Street and the name changed to T.S. & J.D. Negus.  The business of chronometer and navigational instrument making continued to grow, causing them to move to 69 Pearl Street in 1875.   From the Civil War onward, Negus enjoyed the patronage of the U.S. Navy as the suppliers of chronometers and other navigational equipment.  In 1962 the firm was purchased by Max Low & Co.  Low found success in providing the government with navigational instruments, clocks and deck watches during World War II.  Max Low’s son, Charles, continued the business in New York through the 1980’s.  This unusually pristine and complete instrument comes from the Low estate.



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3.48  INCLINOMETER.   Most unusual early 1900’s ship’s pilothouse inclinometer marked, “STRUMENTI NAUTICAL E. CHANZ, TRIESESTE,” engraved on the pendulum bob.  This Italian-made ship’s instrument is unique in our experience, having a glazed brass body mounted to a sculpted hardwood backboard.   As configured it is exceptional in that it is both functional and beautiful.  It has a jet black background engraved with degrees of list in single degree increments from 0 to 51 port and starboard, marked by 10’s.  The heavy, solid brass pendulum bob has a center line engraved on the tip of the pointer to precisely indicate the heel or list within a half degree of accuracy!   The pivot at the apex is steel secured within a blackened brass fitting.   It provides a very smooth, uninterrupted action.   The instrument is housed in its sheet brass enclosure with triangular glass window, all of which is mounted to the one piece hardwood backboard in natural finish.  In use this inclinometer was hung on the athwartships bulkhead in the pilot house in a prominent place.  Insuring its secure attachment are three thick brass tabs.   The one at the top is fixed, whereas the two at the bottom are slotted, cleverly allowing the instrument to be “trued up” if necessary.  11 inches tall by 12 ¾ inches wide overall.  2 ¼ inches thick.  Excellent, fully restored condition.  695 Special PackagingBack to Top

The quaint seaport town of Trieste is located on the extreme northeastern border of Italy, at the head of the Gulf of Trieste on the Adriatic Sea.  Throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of the Latin, Slavic and Germanic cultures.  Trieste was one of the oldest cities in the Habsburg Empire and in the 19th century it was the most important port of that member of the “Great Powers.”  As a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (after Vienna, Budapest and Prague).  It underwent an economic revival during the 1930s and played a key role in the struggle between the Eastern and Western blocs after World War II.  Today Trieste is one of Italy’s richest regions, serving as a center for shipping, shipbuilding and finance.



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3.88  GERMAN SEXTANT.   Very unusual and very innovative, turn-of-the-last century mariner’s sextant made by the noted instrument maker “Carl Bamberg, Berlin, D.R.G.M. No. 631761/3” as engraved on the index arm.  Obviously Bamberg did not produce over 600,000 sextants!   But the /3 may be a clue that this instrument was produced in 1903, or was the third of its kind ever made.  It certainly is unique, having many features not seen on instruments made in other countries at that time.  Its simple brass block lattice frame supports a very narrow silver scale calibrated in degrees from 0-150 (effectively making it a quintant), subdivided to 20 arc minutes and marked by 10’s.  The reading is made by means of a pivoting vernier magnifier with light diffuser over the left reading 0-20 vernier scale with an accuracy of one arc minute.  The index arm stop is an unconventional knurled knob located parallel to the scale.  The fine adjust tangent screw is spring-loaded.  The index and horizon mirrors are unique.  The horizon mirror does not have a split image as in most sextants.  That aspect is embodied in the very different prismatic sighting scope which magnifies.  The scope has a calibrated reticule which provides a view of the mirror as well as the horizon.  Rather than having the typical filter array of index and horizon mirrors, this sextant has only two pivoting filters mounted directly on the objective!  This simple but elegant system is a vast departure from almost every other sextant produced during that era.  The back of the instrument has 3 extremely large “feet” to accommodate the equally large sculpted hardwood handle.  The instrument measures 10 ½ inches wide on the large arc and the overall height 9 ¾ inches.  With its huge feet it is an amazing 6 ¾ inches thick overall.  Condition is virtually perfect.  We have not encountered a stranger, yet more impeccable example in our 35+ years.  A real rarity!   895



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3.89  EARLY ENGLISH OCTANT.  Beautifully preserved early 1800’s English ship captain’s octant made by Francis West as hand-engraved on the large arc, “West, London.”  This high grade navigational instrument has a braced, all brass frame having a large arc inlaid with a silver scale divided from -5 to 130 degrees, subdivided by 20 arc minutes and marked in 10’s of degrees.  The index has a silver vernier calibrated from 0 - 15 in 20 arc second increments, allowing a reading down to 20 arc seconds.  A pivoting magnifier is provided for taking an exact reading.  The shaped brass frame is in its original blackened finish with brass highlights.  It is complete with both index and horizon mirrors, 3 index filters and 3 horizon filters.  The fixed sight tube support rotates for adjustable viewing.  On the reverse the instrument retains its original brass “feet” for mounting in its case and a lovely rich red rosewood handle.   The index arm is 9 ½ inches long and the large arc measures 9 inches wide.  This instrument comes complete with its original mahogany case complete with peep tube, telescope, eyepiece filter and adjusting wrench.  The hand-dovetailed box retains its original brass skeleton lock, striker plate with both hook and eye closures.  It measures 9 ¾ b7 10 ¾ and 5 inches thick.  Overall the condition is outstanding, noting a couple of expected age cracks in the lid of the box.  Over 175 years old!  HOLD

Francis West was an optical, mathematical and philosophical instrument maker from 1822 until 1852, beginning at 83 Fleet Street, London.  He worked at 41 the Strand from 1829 until 1849, then moved to 92 and 93 Fleet Street in 1849.  (Gloria Clifton, “Directory of British Scientific Instrument makers 1550 – 1851,” 1995, The National Maritime Museum, London.)  This style of instrument would have been made early in his career.



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3.87   VINTAGE ENGLISH SEXTANT.   Finest quality World War II vintage sextant made by “Henry Hughes & Son, Ltd., London” as engraved on the large arc and again on the company’s trademark emblem on the index arm.  This all brass navigational instrument has a classic “3 circle” frame in its original black crinkle finish.  The traditional inlaid silver scale is marked from -5 to 130 degrees in single increments.  The pinch type endless screw tangent allowed the navigator to quickly come to a sight, then accurately determine the reading using the micrometer read-out.  It produces a reading down to 10 arc seconds.  To aid in taking a night sight a small light is installed over the index scale, with the batteries cleverly contained within the sculpted Bakelite handle.  The instrument is complete with its full set of index and horizon mirrors, 4 index and 3 horizon filters – all perfect.  It has an adjustable height eyepiece holder which accommodates either the telescope or the peep.  The back, in addition to the handle, has 3 long “feet” for mounting in the box.  The machine-dovetailed box is solid mahogany in beautiful condition with all accessories including a small bottle of whale oil, a skeleton key for the box lock, a mirror adjusting tool and a screw-on eyepiece sun filter.  It is equipped with 2 hook and eye closures, a folding brass handle and the functional box lock.  It the lid is a very handsome “Certificate of Examination  by Cooke & Son, Ltd. Hull” decorated with a 17th century sea battle scene.  It is signed and dated 12/3/43.  The box measures 10 ½ by 11 by 5 5/8 inches.  The instrument itself is 9 ¼ inches tall overall and 8 ¾ inches wide on the large arc. This sextant is in about the best condition of any of its type we have seen in our 35 years!   Virtually flawless!  795


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3.86  BRIDGE FRAME SEXTANT.  Very important, late 18th century navigator’s sextant by one of England’s most respected nautical instrument makers Benjamin Messer, as beautifully hand-engraved on the large arc “Messer, London.”  Those of our customers who have followed West Sea Company since the early 1980’s know rare navigational devices are our specialty – many of which now reside in museums or are featured in books on the topic.  Here then, is perhaps the earliest and finest instrument of its type we have yet had the pleasure to offer.  It consists of a sextant having an inlaid silver scale in the large arc reading from -5o to 145o divided by 20 arc minutes.  The accompanying vernier scale and vernier magnifier allow for a reading down to 20 arc seconds.  The vernier magnifier has yet another unusual and innovative helical adjusting screw.  The beautifully-cast solid brass lattice frame in consonance with the unusual “bridge” surrounding the index mirror and its filters was designed to insure rigidity of the instrument and therefore its accuracy.  Up to this time most navigational instruments were made of wood.  Wood expanded and contracted in the marine environment.  This was one of the first attempts, albeit it expensive at the time, to assure the mariner an accurate reading from his instrument.  This stellar example from that innovative time has both mirror boxes, four index shades and 3 horizon shades - all in perfect condition.  The state-of-the-art sighting tube holder is height adjustable.  This was another innovation over earlier sights which were fixed.  The back of the instrument is equipped with a beautifully-sculpted rosewood handle, classic for its time, and 3 uncommonly large “feet.”  Of special note, this instrument is contained in its original “shaped” keystone box indicative of 18th century manufacture with odd shape and narrow dovetailing.  It is constructed of beautiful crotch grain African mahogany.  It contains 3 sighting tubes, one screw-on filter and is complete with both hook and eye closures and the original skeleton key lock.  It also bears the later decorative servicing label of John Steele who worked at Duke’s Place, Liverpool from 1823-1835.  The index arm is 9 ¾ inches long.  The large arc is 10 ½ inches wide.  The box, with its many facets is 10 ¾ by 12 inches wide and 4 ¾ inches thick.  The wooden box has some quality restoration.  The instrument itself is in beautiful, untouched,  unrestored condition with original surfaces.  Circa 1795.  Amazing after more than 220 years!  If ever there was a candidate for a museum, this is it!
Price Request

Jesse Ramsden, who invented the dividing engine in 1777, spearheaded the idea of making  “rigid instrument frames” in his groundbreaking production.  However, his circa 1790 bridge frame design, quickly went out of fashion because of its inherent complexity, weight and most significantly its high cost.   Ramsden died in 1800 and with his passage went the bridge frame design, although Matthew Berge, his understudy, continued to produce a few examples until 1805.   Very few 18th C. examples survive, and of those virtually all are in museums.  The fact that this example still retains its original shaped wooden box is also extraordinary.

Benjamin Messer worked as a Mathematical Instrument Maker, Optician, Philosophical Instrument maker and ship chandler beginning in 1789 at 75 Wapping. London.  He worked until 1827.   Known to have sold octants.   (Gloria Clifton, “Dictionary of British Scientific Instrument Makers 1550- 1851,” 1995 The National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.)

Harriet Wynter and Anthony Turner co-authored a reference book in 1975 entitled “Scientific Instruments.”  On page 82, Fig. 95. a virtually identical sextant is pictured with the description, “English sextant, signed ‘FRASER, Mathematical Instrum’. Maker to his MAJESTY Bond Str’ LONDON’ c. 1795.  Cross-strutted bridge-type frame with four shades.  Sighting telescope with three eye-pieces.  The scale is divided 0o – 145o by 20” divisions; vernier with tangent and clamping screws reading microscope with helical screw adjustment.”
The back cover of the book depicts the same  iconic instrument in color, obviously cleaned and restored.



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3.85  CHART DIVIDERS.  A very clean pair of navigational chart dividers in nickel silver, dating from the early 1800’s.  These dividers are probably English-made and are in excellent original condition.  They measure 5 3/8 inches long overall and effectively span a distance of up to 9 inches.  The action is very tight and secure.  A bargain.  SOLD



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3.84  EARLY MARINER’s  QUADRANT with MUSEUM PROVENANCE.   Particularly well-preserved navigational instrument dating from the late 1700’s, ex. museum collection.  This large octant, otherwise known as a “Hadley quadrant,” has limbs of mahogany, ivory scales and brass furniture.  It is of the double reflecting type, introduced by John Hadley to the Royal Society in 1735, after which such instruments saw acceptance and production in very nearly this same form for the next 100 years!  This example has distinctive characteristics which date it to circa 1790.  They include the existence of a backsight, mahogany vs. ebony construction, interchangeable filters, ivory pencil and large flat index arm with simple stop and left reading 0-20 vernier scale.  (See our customer help feature “History of the Sextant”).  This instrument is of classic form with an engraved ivory scale reading from -2 to 99 degrees signed with the “SBR” monogram indicating it was made by the prestigious firm of Spencer, Browning & Rust using their recent version of Jesse Ramsden’s dividing engine invented in the early 1780’s.  The ivory index arm vernier scale is calibrated from 0 to 20 minutes, providing an accuracy of one arc minute.  The frame is of mahogany (vs. ebony) indicating it is of earlier manufacture.   It is complete with its very rarely-found pencil for noting readings and small inland trapezoidal ivory notepad inlaid on the reverse.   The reverse also bears all of the brass fittings for adjusting the mirror boxes and all three brass “feet.”  This handsome instrument measures 16 inches long by 13 inches wide on the long arc.  The original case is constructed of hand-dove-tailed pinewood in its very desirable early deep blue paint.  Interestingly a number of the mariner’s original observations are penciled in the lid, making it a great, first hand, real time, intimate window into shipboard history!  The museum accession numbers “T266” are finely painted in red on both the instrument and its box.  The box measures 17 ½ inches long by 15 ¼ inches wide and 3 ¾ inches thick.  Aside from their already acknowledged rarity, such instruments hardly ever come to the market with their original boxes, and virtually NEVER in such fine, pristine, original condition!  This quadrant is well over 200 years old! Price Request

The venerable firm of Spencer, Browning and Rust was a prolific manufacturer of navigational instruments since the partnership was established in 1780.  The name appeared in the London Directories between 1780 and 1784 as being at 327 High Street, Wapping, London.   In 1798 the firm moved to 66 High Street and remained there into the 1840’s when the firm name became Spencer, Browning & Co. 




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3.83  AZIMUTH INSTRUMENT.  Original, highest quality ship’s navigational instrument made by the esteemed American makers, “NEGUS NEW YORK” as stamped on the bed plate and again on the maker’s tag on the box.  This precision instrument is all brass with a blackened finish.  It has an optical quality glass prism which rotates via two knurled brass knobs.  Designed to be set atop the ship’s main steering compass in a binnacle, it has a magnifier set in a tube below the prism to enhance the current compass reading while at the same time providing an image of the sun or celestial body.  Two pivoting sun shades are provided for looking at the former.  A removable “line-of-sight” pole is provided, as is a bubble level for assuring totally accurate level readings.  This instrument was designed to fit over the top of a standard size 8 inch compass.  It measures 9 ¼ inches long by 3 3/8 inches wide and 8 ¾ inches high with the removable vertical post.  Absolutely mint, untouched, original factory condition in its original dove-tailed wooden box with brass hardware measuring 10 1/4 by 7 ½ inches by 5 ½ inches thick.  269

Primarily used to determine LAN (Local Apparent Noon) the azimuth instrument is an effective tool for determining the ship’s latitude by measuring the sun’s altitude at the exact time of meridian passage.

The Negus firm first appeared in the New York City directories at 84 Wall Street in 1850.  Thomas Stewart was trained as a chronometer maker in England and began working with his brother, John David in 1848, first under the name of Thos. S. Negus & Co.   During the Civil War the firm moved to 100 Wall Street and the name changed to T.S. & J.D. Negus.  The business of chronometer and navigational instrument making continued to grow, causing them to move to 69 Pearl Street in 1875.   From the Civil War onward, Negus enjoyed the patronage of the U.S. Navy as the suppliers of chronometers and other navigational equipment.   By the early 1900’s T.S. & J.D. Negus had established themselves as the leading nautical instrument makers and chandler in the United States.  In 1962 the firm was purchased by Max Low & Co.  Low found success in providing the government with navigational instruments, clocks and deck watches during World War II.  Max Low’s son, Charles, continued the business in New York through the 1980’s when the firm was finally dissolved.



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3.41  MARINER’s QUADRANT.   Very rare, museum-quality navigating instrument from the age of sail.  This 18th century quadrant, otherwise known as an “octant” is signed on the flat brass index arm in engraved script, “GILBERT & GILKERSON  ~ Tower Hill London.”  This early astronomical angle measuring device has limbs of mahogany with inset ivory scales and brass furniture.  The index arm is 16 inches long overall and terminates in an engraved vernier scale on ivory which sweeps over the large ivory scale divided from -1 degree to 99 degrees divided by 20 arc minutes.  The vernier, divided from 0 – 20 allows a reading down to one arc minute.  The single thumbscrew stop on the index arm (without the later form tangential fine adjustment) belies this instrument’s 18th century origins.  The fact that the large scale effectively describes an arc of 90 degrees is the reason such instruments were known as “quadrants.”  This example has a double peephole foresight and a single antiquated “back sight.  All three mirror boxes are present as is the full set of 3 interchangeable sun filters.  A blank ivory nameplate is inset into the cross brace and the rarely-found ivory pencil is still in place.  The brass index arm stop is present on the right limb.  On the reverse, this instrument retains all three brass “feet,” trapezoidal ivory note pad for recording readings with the pencil, and a complicated set of adjustments for the two horizon mirrors.  In short this rare surviving relic is totally complete and in an outstanding state of original preservation.  Complete in its old original keystone pinewood box.  Interestingly, several notations from actual readings are scribed on the interior in pencil and in chalk.  The instrument itself measures 13 inches wide on the arc.  The box measures 18 inches long by 15 inches wide and is 4 inches thick.  The box is surprisingly sound and in great condition.  SOLD 

The partnership of William Gilbert and James Gilkerson was begun in 1793 as mathematical instrument makers and opticians at 8 Postern Row, Tower Hill, London.  They were succeeded by Gilkerson & Co, in 1809.  The partnership was known to have made and sold sextants, rules, globes and ring dials.  William Gilbert was heir to a long line of mathematical and scientific instrument makers beginning with his grandfather, John Gilbert (I) in 1719 and his father, John Gilbert (II) in 1751.

(Gloria Clifton, “Dictionary of British Scientific Instrument makers 1550 -1851,” 1995, Zwemmer, Philip Wilson Publishers, London).


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3.81  MARINER’s QUADRANT.  Very rare, highly desirable 18th century navigational device known as a quadrant, or alternatively “octant.”  This early example is patterned after John Hadley’s double reflecting quadrant first introduced in 1731.  It is an extraordinary instrument which has limbs of mahogany with brass furniture and a finely engraved boxwood scale inlaid into the large arc.  The scale is divided from 0 to 90 degrees, or one quarter of a circle, hence the designation “quad”rant.  The degrees are marked by 5’s.  Each degree is sub-divided into 20 arc minute segments, with diagonal lines cutting across 10 concentric circles.  With this arrangement the index arm and its ivory “line of faith” can provide a reading to an accuracy of 2 arc minutes, interpolated to 1 arc minute.  Below the diagonal scale is a second linear scale divided into single degrees and subdivided to 20 arc minutes.  These precise divisions are quite remarkable considering they were hand-done, before the advent of the mechanical dividing engine!  To attain such accuracy the instrument was necessarily large.  The index arm is slightly over 18 1/2 inches in length and the scale is 15 inches wide.  The quadrant is equipped with an index mirror and horizon mirror, a set of three pivoting filters, and a peep sight with pivoting shade.  It has a blank ivory nameplate in the cross brace.  On the reverse are three brass “feet” and the horizon mirror box adjusting assembly.  The index arm stop is a single brass thumb screw.  There is no fine adjustment feature on these early instruments.  Condition is remarkably excellent for a working device which saw sea service over 240 years ago!  A true museum piece! Price Request

The search for “The longitude” in early 18th century England was encouraged by the Board of Longitude which offered a massive prize of £30,000 for the solution.  It spurred much innovative interest in celestial navigation.  In May 1731 John Hadley, an English mathematician, presented a paper to his fellow members of the Royal Society in London describing the use of a double reflecting quadrant or "octant."  His quadrant was based on the principle of light reflection and angles of incidence that were described by Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, and Edmund Halley in the previous century.  The principle is that when the angle of a celestial object and the horizon is seen through a double reflection, that angle is condensed in half between the two reflecting surfaces.  Thus Hadley's quadrant, reading to 90°, had an arc of only 45°, or one eighth of a circle, making it an "octant."  Basically the instrument consisted of a triangular wooden frame with a swinging index arm pivoted at the apex.  A mirror was fixed at that point which would move with the arm.  A second mirror, half of which was transparent so that the user could view the horizon, was fixed to one limb and a sight was attached to the opposite limb.  A precise scale, calibrated in degrees, was scribed on the arc of the bottom limb of the triangle, across which the index arm moved.  This continued to be the basic form of angle measuring navigational instruments for the next 250 years, and still remains, even with the advent of GPS!

Quite independently of Hadley, Thomas Godfrey, a Philadelphia glazier and acquaintance of Benjamin Franklin, devised an improved altitude measuring device based on the same principle over a year earlier.  The instrument had been tested in the sloop TRUEMAN on voyages to Jamaica and Newfoundland from 1730-1731.  The Royal Society recognized the equal contributions of both men and awarded them a prize of £200 each.  Godfrey also received a prize from the Board of Longitude (of chronometer fame) for his work.  However it was Hadley who ultimately received the most credit for the invention.

The improvements in navigation of the Hadley quadrant or "octant” as it came to be known, over previous instruments was immense.  Not only was it more accurate, it provided simplicity of operation, and the ability to "capture" the object being sighted for rapid, multiple sightings.  The merits of the quadrant were immediately noticed by the British Admiralty and its commercial production was begun.  Even so, the instrument did not find popular acceptance and general use amongst traditionally minded mariners until after 1750.

The earliest Hadley quadrants, like backstaves, were constructed of walnut or other indigenous woods, with the scales being engraved on boxwood (although examples on brass do exist).   With the discovery and growing importation of exotic woods such as ebony, rosewood and African mahogany beginning in the 1750's, the use of mahogany was quickly implemented, gradually giving way to the exclusive use of ebony, then ultimately brass by the mid-1800's.

From the article “Evolution of the Sextant” by Rod Cardoza
http://westsea.com/captains-log/evolutionofthesextant.html



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3.80  PRESENTATION SEXTANT.  Truly exceptional first half of the 19th century British pocket sextant also known as a “box sextant.”  This fabulous example of the early scientific instrument maker’s art is all brass, housed in its original mahogany case.  This maker of this precision instrument is identified with the hand-engraved signature “T. Dunn, Edinburgh.”  It is inlaid with a scale of sterling silver calibrated in half degrees of arc from -5 to 140 marked by tens.  The fine silver vernier scale on the index arm provides an accuracy down to a single arc minute.  To facilitate the minute reading a pivoted magnifier is provided.  What is truly exceptional about this instrument, placing it far above most others of its type, is that it actually has a fine adjustment tangent screw, typically only seen in much larger sextants of the era.  Cleverly, it also has two pivoting sun filers within the body, actuated by levers on the periphery of the case.  A removable sight is also provided, which rests in the case when not in use.   The instrument is encased in a knurled brass cover which hermetically seals it when not in use, and acts as a handle when screwed onto the other side.  Adding more value and desirability it is beautifully engraved with the presentation “TO James Peddie FROM Geo.& Jas.s Gunn JUNE 1842.”  The quality of the engraving is the finest we have ever seen!  The instrument itself measures 3 inches in diameter and 1 ¾ inches thick.  The mahogany box of splined construction with original brass hook and eye closure and inlaid brass plaque measures 4 by 4 inches and 2 1/4 inches thick.  Remarkably pristine original condition after 174 years!  Certainly the finest box sextant we have ever had the pleasure of offering.  
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Gloria Clifton, author of “Directory of British Scientific Instrument Makers 1550 – 1851,” 1995, The National Maritime Museum, lists Thomas Dunn on page 90 as a Mathematical, Philosophical instrument maker and Optician, working first in 1843 at 50 Hanover Street in Edinburgh, Scotland then at 106 George Street through 1867.  Thomas began his business with his brother, John Dunn II in 1841, who at the time was working in Glasgow.  It is interesting to note that the presentation date of 1842 predates Thomas’s move to Edinburgh, apparently still in the employ of his brother.



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3.77  SEXTANT & OCTANT PARTS.  We now offer for sale a large variety of original old parts for 19th and early 20th century sextants, including filters, mirror boxes, mirrors, telescopes, peep tubes, sights, mounting feet, telescope holders, vernier magnifiers, individual glass sun filters, screw-on eyepiece sun filers, etc. etc.  The large diversity of this unmarked material is not identifiable by specific make and model.  However we can provide “look alikes” and “nearly the same” replacements for your instrument lacking same.  Prices are very reasonable for these authentic antique components compared to the cost of a newly fabricated replacement.  VARIOUS


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3.78   EXCEPTIONALLY RARE MARINER’s QUADRANT.   The real deal!  An authentic 18th century English ship’s navigational instrument made by the most noted instrument maker of his day, George Adams (I).  This incredible relic from ye olde days of sail is made of thick brass beautifully signed in engraved cursive script, “G Adams Mathematical Instrument Maker to His MAJESTY Fleet Street London.”  It is the earliest form of navigational quadrant, calibrated on the arc from 0 to 90 in single degrees subdivided to quarter degrees (15 arc minutes) marked by 10’s.  The precise engraving is all the more remarkable considering it was hand-engraved!   It was NOT done with the yet-to-be-invented dividing engine.  Each increment is less than 1/32 inch (<1 mm) wide!  In use the navigator sighted the celestial object along the 0 degree limb.  A string rove through a small hole at the apex supported a small plumb bob which ran across the scale.  When the sighting was taken, the observer pinched the string on the arc then noted its position on the scale.  The original string, long since deteriorated, is now replaced with a working silk string and brass bob.  This instrument has a 7 inch radius and measures exactly 10 inches wide.  Outstanding original condition showing genuine age and a beautiful statuary bronze age patina acquired over hundreds of years.   Few, if any, examples of a true mariner’s quadrant remain outside of the world’s major museums.  This is the first we have been fortunate to offer in our 35+ years.   SOLD

George Adams (I) was born in 1709.  He worked as a mathematical, philosophical and optical instrument maker from 1734 to 1772.  His first shop was near Shoe Lane, Fleet Street, London.  From 1738 to 1757 he worked at Tycho Brahe’s Head, Fleet Street, then in 1767 at 60 Fleet Street.  He patented a telescope in 1750 and won the Royal appointment to George III, the Prince of Wales in 1760, about the time of this instrument.  He is known to have produced a wide range of scientific instruments.  (Gloria Clifton, “Directory of British Scientific Instrument Makers 1550-1851,”1995, Philip Wilson Publishers, London.)

Two of the most highly regarded and comprehensive works on early navigation are books written by co-authors Harriet Wynter and Anthony Turner, “Scientific Instruments,” 1975;  and by Peter Ifland, “Taking The Stars,” 1998.  On page 70 Ms. Wynter writes, “One of the first elevation-finding instruments was the sea quadrant, first used by mariners in the fifteenth century.  It was a simple arc of a circle made of wood or brass with two sighting pinnules along one straight edge, which were directed towards a celestial body.  A plumb bob attached to the apex swings across an arcuate scale graduated 0-90o to show the altitude reading.”  No photograph or likeness accompanies the text.

On page 5 of his book Mr. Ifland states, “The mariner’s quadrant came into widespread use around 1450.  Columbus used one on his first voyage to the New World.  The seagoing version was a quarter circle made of wood or brass.  Pinnules were provided along one edge for sighting Polaris.  A plumb bob suspended by a thread from the apex of the quadrant hung vertically across a scale spanning 90o. “   In Figure 6 he provides a black and white photograph of a similar brass instrument captioned, “A mariner’s quadrant, ca. 1600. Brass, 6.9-inch radius.  National Maritime Museum, London.”

 

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3.74   WEST COAST SEXTANT.  Very nice, early 1900’s English mariner’s sextant made for the famous West Coast Nautical chandler George Butler of San Francisco.  This top quality instrument was manufactured by the very highly regarded firm “Heath & Co., New Eltham, London.” as marked on the inspection certificate.  It is signed “Hezzanith.” on the maker’s  index arm plaque.  Then on the large brass arc it is boldly engraved “HEATH & Co NEW ELTHAM LONDON, MADE FOR G.E. BUTLER CO., SAN FRANCSCO.”  State-of-the-art for its time, it has a large brass arc with inlaid silver scale calibrated in single degrees from -5 to 130 marked by 10’s.  The arc is also marked “Made In England B828.”  The 9 inch index arm is marked “HEZZANITH RAPID READER, Patent” and bears the label reading “HEZZANITH Endless Tangent Screw Clamp Semper Paratus –Patent–”   The base of the arm is equipped with a spring-loaded pinch stop and a large drum micrometer fine adjust knob.  Once an observation is taken the reading is indicated to the nearest degree by an arrow in the silver vernier window.  A finer reading to the nearest arc minute is shown on the circular drum.  Then an even finer reading to an accuracy of 10 arc seconds is indicated on the second vernier!  The classic “3-circle” frame is cast bronze in a blackened crinkle finish.  It supports both index and horizon mirrors and a full set of 4 pivoting index shades and 3 horizon shades.  A height-adjustable telescope holder with knurled knob is provided for positioning one of the two sighting tubes contained in the box.  The reverse of the instrument has a sculpted mahogany handle and 2 supporting brass “feet.”  These allow the sextant to rest securely in its sturdy solid oak box of machine dovetailed construction.  The box accommodates both telescopic and peep tubes, 2 adjusting wrenches, a screw-on peep sun filter and a bristle brush marked “TO CLEAN ARC RACK.”  There is also a small piece of chamois included with the optics.  The perfect label in the lid bears Heath’s iconic trade mark reading “HEZZANITH OBSERVATORY LONDON.”   It goes on to state “This sextant No. B828” is shown to have 00 error.  It is signed with the initials “CHJ” and is dated 15th November 1934.  The very sound box is equipped with brass hardware including 2 closure hooks, folding handle and box lock with original functional key.  The lid also bears the later trade label of the “Southwest Instrument Company.”  The box measures 10 ¼ by 11 by 5 ½ inches and is in virtually mint original condition.  A totally complete high quality English navigational instrument over 80 years old.  795

Provenance:  From the estate of Captain “O. C. Thompsen, Berkeley,” California as hand-engraved on a brass plaque fronting the box.



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3.71  NAVIGATOR’s DIVIDERS.  Early 1900’s pair of ship navigator’s single-handed dividers used to measure distances on a chart.  This high quality pair is constructed of solid brass with steel tips.  The precisely-fitted hinged joint at the apex assures smooth movement with a positive stop.  The body of these dividers is constructed so as to allow the navigator to manipulate them with one hand while using parallel rules in the other.  This distinctive aspect sets the navigator’s dividers apart from those used by mechanical draftsmen.  5 7/8 inches long.  The inside of one limb is signed “MADE IN GREAT BRITAIN (T145).”  Perfect original condition.  The real deal!   129

Provenance:  From the estate of Captain “O. C. Thompsen, Berkeley,” California in the 1920’s. 



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3.37   PILOT HOUSE INCLINOMETER.  Charming mid-century sailor-made ship’s bridge clinometer made of solid brass and mounted to a wooden backboard.  This genuine ship’s relic is hand-made, fashioned from a thick piece of solid sheet brass in the classic form of an isosceles triangle with the pendulum bob pivot at the apex.  The indicator arm is in the form of an arrow pointing to the arc scale which is calibrated in 5 degree increments from 0 to 40 port and starboard.  The instrument itself measures 8 inches high by 9 7/8ths inches wide.  The backboard measures 11 ½ by 9 ¾ inches high.  It is completely functional and all surfaces are original and show good age.  195



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3.60  VERY EARLY SEXTANT.  Museum-quality mariner’s sextant from the days of sail.  This remarkable instrument bears the beautifully hand- engraved signature Hoppes Improved Sextant LONDON No. 271on the large arc.   Its inlaid silver scale is exquisitely calibrated from  -5 to 145 degrees divided by 20 arc minutes, marked in 5’s, effectively making it a “quintant” or one fifth of a circle vs. one sixth, as with average sextants.  The old style “lattice frame” is telling of it age -- from the era when instrument makers were concerned with the stability and precision of their instruments -- which up until that time were made of wood.  This early, innovative solid brass example has a silver vernier scale, left reading from 0 to 15 calibrated down to 20 arc seconds.  To enable a reading a powerful pivoting magnifier is attached to the braced 10 ¾ inch index arm.  The arm is equipped with a knurled thumbscrew stop and a tangent fine adjusting screw.  The state-of-the art trussed frame is equipped with both index and horizon mirrors and a full set of index and horizon filters, all in perfect original condition.  The height adjustable sight tube holder, perhaps one of Hoppe’s claims of “improvement,” accommodates two accessory tubes in the box:   one peep and one telescopic.  On the reverse of the instrument are 3 brass “feet” for positioning in the box, and a sculpted early-form ebony handle.  Another “improved” feature is the horizon mirror box with unusual adjustment device.  This exceptionally early navigational instrument is housed in its original hand dove-tailed, keystone mahogany box in excellent condition for its age. The original brass hook and eye closure is present,  the lock is absent.  Inside the lid is the partial, much later (1890’s) label of "Max Kuner, Seattle."  The box measures 12 inches high by 12 ½ inches wide and is 5 inches thick.  A truly exceptional navigational instrument, well over 200 yesrs old, still used by mariners at least 90 years after it was made!  1695

According to Gloria Clifton, author of “Dictionary of British Scientific Instrument Makers 1550 – 1851,” 1995, Philip Wilson Publishers, The National Maritime Museum, London, Ebenezer Hoppe was a mathematical and optical instrument maker working at Edward Street, Limehouse Fields, London in 1801, having been apprenticed to Michael Dancer in 1793.   He was noted as the inventor of an improved sextant.



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 3.76  SAILING SHIP INCLINOMETER.  Very handsome solid teak and brass shipboard clinometer faithfully copied after the original adorning the officers’ dining room aboard the famous sailing ship the STAR of INDIA.  This high quality instrument is made from solid teak and brass with two “rope twist” limbs and an arc covered by a brass scale divided in 10’s from 0 - 40 degrees port and starboard.  The heavy cast brass pendulum has a decorative fleur-de-lis at the top and a unique cut-out arrow which points to the individual degree of heel or list.  When rotated, the brass pivot knob at the apex serves the dual purpose of locking the pendulum when not in use.  The screws holding the brass scale on either side also function as the attachments to the bulkhead.   This fine inclinometer measures 10 ½ inches wide by 8 ½ inches tall on the frame.  The brass pendulum measures 11 inches long.  Complete with an etched brass presentation plaque reading:

.FROM THE ORIGINAL.
3-MASTED BARK
“STAR of INDIA”
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FORMERLY
“EUTERPE” 1863

In pristine condition, this inclinometer is itself over ¼ century old, having been manufactured in 1983 to commemorate the 120th anniversary of the ship.  79

The 3-masted bark STAR of INDIA is the oldest ship in the world which still sails! She was built at the Ramsey Shipyard, Isle of Man, England in 1863.   With an iron hull, she was state-of-the-art at the time, when most vessels were still being built of wood.  She was launched as a full-rigged ship, christened EUTURPE, after the Greek muse of music and poetry.
 
EUTURPE began her career on a turbulent note. During her first trip she suffered a collision and a mutiny. On her second trip she was caught by a cyclone in the Bay of Bengal.  With her topmasts cut away she barely made port. Shortly thereafter her captain died on board and was buried at sea.
 
 After these ill-fated beginnings, EUTERPE made four more voyages to India as a cargo ship. In 1871 she was purchased by the Shaw Savill Line, London and embarked on a quarter century of hauling emigrants to New Zealand, Australia, California and Chile. In this capacity she circumnavigated the globe 21 times with many voyages lasting up to a year!

In 1897 EUTERPE was sold to Hawaiian interests, then again to the Pacific Coloional Ship Company of San Francisco in 1899.  In that service she made 4 voyages between the Pacific Northwest, Australia and Hawaii carrying lumber, coal and sugar.

In 1901, EUTERPE was sold to the Alaska Packers’ Association of San Francisco and  re-rigged as a bark.  In 1902 the newly overhauled vessel began the final episode of her active career carrying fishermen, cannery workers, coal and canning supplies from Oakland, California to Nushagak, Alaska.  Each fall she returned with a catch of canned salmon.   In 1906, she was renamed the STAR of INDIA in keeping with the names of her sister ships in the Packers’ fleet.   Finally in 1923 she was laid up after 22 Alaskan voyages, having outlived her usefulness in the age of steam.

In 1926 the STAR of INDIA was sold to the San Diego Zoological Society with the idea of featuring her as the centerpiece of a museum and aquarium.  To this day, she continues to fulfill that role as the prime attraction of the San Diego Maritime Museum.

SHIP SPECIFICATIONS:
Hull Length 212 feet
Sparred Length 280 feet
Beam 25 feet
Draft 21 ½ feet
Gross Tonnage 1318 tons



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3.27  GERMAN INCLINOMETER.   Scarce, very high quality all brass ship’s pilothouse inclinometer of German manufacture.  This precision instrument features a white enamel dial prominently marked “CLINOMETER , Oil Damping.” while at the bottom it bears the maker’s name “Hanseatic Instruments Hamburg, Made In Germany.”  It is marked in degrees of ship’s heel from 0 (even keel) to 46 degrees port or starboard in 2 degree increments.  The dial is covered by a perfect convex glass crystal which protects the delicate indicator needle.  This genuine ship’s instrument is in virtually pristine original condition, providing a smooth, accurate reading at any instant in time.  It measures 6 1/8 inches in diameter.  A very nice, functional instrument with a sea service history. Bargain priced!  179



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3.34 AMERICAN WOOD BOWL COMPASS. Genuine, early 2nd quarter of the 19th century American compass made by the noted compass maker "Robert Merrill, New York." as signed around the central pivot. The nicely engraved dry card is divided to 1/2 points of the compass, with the cardinal and intercardinal points identified and North marked by an elaborate fleur-de-lis. The central brass pivot has an agate cap. Indicative of its early origin this compass has a decorated East point, a traditional holdover in early compass making since the Crusaders traveled East during the Middle Ages. Even more remarkable, the compass housing is of turned wood! The compass card measures 6 inches in diameter and is housed in its original green-painted bowl with glazed cover slung in gimbals within the hand-dovetailed pine box measuring 10 inches square and 7 inches high. It appears that the box originally had a hinged lid. Overall condition is excellent. The compass is functional and it gimbals properly. A very nice example of a scarce American wooden bowl compass by the most famous American compass maker of the 19th century. Given the wooden bowl construction and the decorated East point on the card, this compass most certainly dates from the beginning of Merrill's career, circa 1835. 995Special Packaging

Robert Merrill was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts on April 19, 1804. He was first listed as a "mathematical instrument" maker in the New York City directory of 1835-1836 with a partner, William Davis. Shortly thereafter, in 1838 Merrill struck out on his own as a compass maker at the address 141 Maiden Lane. In 1865 Merrill took his sons into the business. He died in 1876. (Charles Smart, "The Makers of Surveying Instruments in America Since 1700," 1962, Regal Art Press, New York.)



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3.48  INCLINOMETER.   Most unusual early 1900’s ship’s pilothouse inclinometer marked, “STRUMENTI NAUTICAL E. CHANZ, TRIESESTE,” engraved on the pendulum bob.  This Italian-made ship’s instrument is unique in our experience, having a glazed brass body mounted to a sculpted hardwood backboard.   As configured it is exceptional in that it is both functional and beautiful.  It has a jet black background engraved with degrees of list in single degree increments from 0 to 51 port and starboard, marked by 10’s.  The heavy, solid brass pendulum bob has a center line engraved on the tip of the pointer to precisely indicate the heel or list within a half degree of accuracy!   The pivot at the apex is steel secured within a blackened brass fitting.   It provides a very smooth, uninterrupted action.   The instrument is housed in its sheet brass enclosure with triangular glass window, all of which is mounted to the one piece hardwood backboard in natural finish.  In use this inclinometer was hung on the athwartships bulkhead in the pilot house in a prominent place.  Insuring its secure attachment are three thick brass tabs.   The one at the top is fixed, whereas the two at the bottom are slotted, cleverly allowing the instrument to be “trued up” if necessary.  11 inches tall by 12 ¾ inches wide overall.  2 ¼ inches thick.  Excellent, fully restored condition.  695 Special PackagingBack to Top

The quaint seaport town of Trieste is located on the extreme northeastern border of Italy, at the head of the Gulf of Trieste on the Adriatic Sea.  Throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of the Latin, Slavic and Germanic cultures.  Trieste was one of the oldest cities in the Habsburg Empire and in the 19th century it was the most important port of that member of the “Great Powers.”  As a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (after Vienna, Budapest and Prague).  It underwent an economic revival during the 1930s and played a key role in the struggle between the Eastern and Western blocs after World War II.  Today Trieste is one of Italy’s richest regions, serving as a center for shipping, shipbuilding and finance.



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